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Carl Shapiro - Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley. Berkeley, CA, US

Carl Shapiro Carl Shapiro

Professor of the Graduate School | Transamerica Chair in Business Strategy Emeritus | University of California, Berkeley



Areas of Expertise (4)

Anti-trust Economics

Design and Use of Patents

Economics of Networks and Interconnection

Industrial Organization Economics


Carl Shapiro is a Professor at Berkeley Haas and the Department of Economics at the University of California at Berkeley. He also is the Berkeley Haas Transamerica Professor of Business Strategy Emeritus.

Shapiro served as a Senate-confirmed Member of the President’s Council of Economic Advisers during 2011 to 2012. For the two years immediately prior to that, he was the Deputy Assistant Attorney General for Economics at the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice; he also held that position during 1995 to 1996. From 1998 to 2008, he served as Director of the Institute of Business and Economic Research at UC Berkeley.

Shapiro has been editor and co-editor of the Journal of Economic Perspectives and a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, among other honors. He earned his PhD in Economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1981, taught at Princeton University during the 1980s, and served on the faculty at UC Berkeley since 1990.

Shapiro has published extensively in the areas of industrial organization, competition policy, patents, the economics of innovation, the design and use of patents, and competitive strategy.

Shapiro is the co-author, with Hal R. Varian, of "Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy," published by the Harvard Business School Press. "Information Rules" has received critical acclaim for its application of economic principles to the Information Economy and has been widely read by managers and adopted for classroom use.






Carl Shapiro on Patenting 101


Education (3)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology: PhD, Economics

UC Berkeley: MA, Mathematics

Massachusetts Institute of Technology: BS, Mathematics and Economics

Honors & Awards (5)

Economist of the Year, Global Competition Review


Susan Bies Lecture on Economics and Public Policy

Northwestern University 2015

Distinguished Fellow, Industrial Organization Society


Award for Excellence in Teaching, MBA Program, Haas School of Business

Honorable Mention, 1999-2000

National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program, 60th Anniversary Awardee

One of 60 Awardees selected from over 45,000 Fellows

Selected External Service & Affiliations (3)

  • Senior Consultant: Charles River Associates
  • Consultant: a wide range of private clients, the U.S. Department of Justice, and the Federal Trade Commission
  • Research Associate: National Bureau of Economic Research

Positions Held (1)

At Haas since 1990

2018 - present, Professor of the Graduate School 2018 - present, Transamerica Professor of Business Strategy Emeritus, Haas School 2011 - 2012, Member, President's Council of Economic Advisers 2009 - 2011 and 1995 - 1996, Deputy Assistant Attorney General for Economics, Antitrust Division, U.S. Department of Justice 1994-2017, Transamerica Professor of Business Strategy, Haas School 1990-2017, Professor Business and Economics, UC Berkeley 1980 - 1990, Professor, Woodrow Wilson School and Department of Economics, Princeton University

Media Appearances (2)

More than money: Solutions for reining in monopoly power

WBUR On Point  radio


In a multi-part series, the radio show explored the argument put forth by several members of the Biden administration that reining in monopoly power is critical to maintaining democracy. Professor Carl Shapiro, Transamerica Chair in Business Strategy Emeritus and former deputy assistant attorney general in the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice, has spent 25 years working to strengthen antitrust enforcement and researching the topic. "You can't tell the federal judge, here's what we need for democracy or our freedoms," he said. "I love the soaring rhetoric, but in the real world, you've got to convince the judge that the merger will substantially lessen competition or may do so. So that's an economic concept."

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Antitrust & Competition Law in the Age of a Global Pandemic

National Law Review  online


It is said that people “come together” in times of crisis. Yet, businesses should be wary of collaboration with their rivals because antitrust laws apply equally in times of emergency as well as prosperity. Indeed, recent history and announcements from the Department of Justice signify a heightened focus on antitrust enforcement, especially with respect to markets affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Selected Papers & Publications (11)

Antitrust in a Time of Populism

International Journal of Industrial Organization

Carl Shapiro

February 2018

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Horizontal Mergers, Market Structure, and Burdens of Proof

Yale Law Journal

Herbert Hovenkamp & Carl Shapiro

May 2018

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How Antitrust Law Can Make FRAND Commitments More Effective

Yale Law Journal

A. Douglas Melamed & Carl Shapiro

May 2018

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Whither Antitrust Enforcement in the Trump Administration?

Antitrust Source

Steven C. Salop & Carl Shapiro


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Patent Remedies

American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings

Carl Shapiro


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The Actavis Inference: Theory and Practice

Rutgers University Law Review

Carl Shapiro, Aaron Edlin, Scott Hemphill, and Herbert Hovenkamp


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Competition and Innovation: Did Arrow Hit the Bull’s Eye?,

The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity Revisited

Carl Shapiro


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The 2010 Horizontal Merger Guidelines: From Hedgehog to Fox in Forty Years

Antitrust Law Journal

Carl Shapiro


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How Strong Are Weak Patents?

American Economic Review

Carl Shapiro and Joseph Farrell


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Patent Hold-Up and Royalty Stacking

Texas Law Review

Carl Shapiro and Mark A. Lemley


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Probabilistic Patents

Journal of Economic Perspectives

Carl Shapiro and Mark A. Lemley


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Teaching (1)

Economic Analysis for Business Decisions

BA 201A