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Chris Janiszewski - University of Florida. Gainesville, FL, US

Chris Janiszewski Chris Janiszewski

Russell Berrie Eminent Scholar Chair | University of Florida

Gainesville, FL, UNITED STATES

Chris Janiszewski is an expert in branding.


Janiszewski is an expert in branding.

Industry Expertise (1)

Business Services

Areas of Expertise (5)

Consumer Learning

Price Perception

Perceived Value



Media Appearances (3)

Science says there’s a reason we can’t stop eating salted caramel

SBS Food  online


Dr Cammy Crolic, an associate professor of marketing at Britain’s Oxford University, and Chris Janiszewski, from the University of Florida, put their theories about why this happens to the test in a series of studies. The subjects chowed down on a variety of foods and drinks – including salted caramel pretzel pieces, taco-flavoured corn chips and a multi-fruit juice.

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Why odd numbers are dodgy, evens are good, and 7 is everyone's favourite

The Guardian  online


Dan King of the National University of Singapore and Chris Janiszewski of the University of Florida asked participants whether they liked, disliked or felt neutral about every number between 1 and 100, as the numbers appeared in random order on a screen. Data from this experiment showed that even numbers and ones ending in 5 are much better liked than the other odd numbers.

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Why we all love numbers

The Guardian  online


Academic research corroborates Greg's semiotic evaluation: for household products, divisible numbers are more attractive to consumers than indivisible ones. In 2011, Dan King of the National University of Singapore and Chris Janiszewski of the University of Florida demonstrated that an imaginary brand of anti-dandruff shampoo was better liked when it was called Zinc 24 than when it was called Zinc 31. The respondents preferred Zinc 24 so much that they were willing to pay 10% more for it.

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Articles (5)

Linking Thought and Behavior: Evidence for Process—Mode of Expression Congruence Effects

Journal of Consumer Psychology

Luke Nowlan, Benjamin Borenstein, Carter Morgan, Minzhe Xu, Chris Janiszewski

2021 Prior research suggests that the influence of marketing cues on consumers’ behavior can occur as a result of either system 1 processes (i.e., associative, intuitive, impulsive processes) or system 2 processes (i.e., rule-based, analytic, reflective processes). We demonstrate that how people express a behavior can influence whether the behavior reflects predominantly system 1 or system 2 processing. Specifically, we propose a process—mode of expression congruence effect, whereby less deliberate behaviors (e.g., physically grabbing something) are relatively more sensitive to system 1 processing, while more deliberate behaviors (e.g., writing down one’s preference) are relatively more sensitive to system 2 processing. Six studies provide support for process—mode of expression congruence, showing that the magnitude and direction in which an environmental cue influences a consumer’s behavior can depend on the deliberateness of the mode of expression.

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Boundaries of Constructive Choice: On the Accessibility of Maximize Accuracy and Minimize Effort Goals

Journal of Consumer Psychology

Felipe M Affonso, Chris Janiszewski, James R Bettman

2021 The impact of decision difficulty on search behavior depends on the relative accessibility of maximize accuracy and minimize effort goals in memory. The default assumption, derived from constructive choice theory, is that maximize accuracy and minimize effort goals are both accessible. Thus, the two goals compete to influence a decision process. When this is the case, an increase in decision difficulty discourages search and the opportunity to make an accurate decision suffers. The alternative assumption, derived from goal systems theory, is that maximize accuracy and minimize effort goals can be differentially accessible. When one of these goals is more accessible, decision difficulty signals poor goal progress and reduces goal pursuit. That is, when a maximize accuracy (minimize effort) goal is more accessible, decision difficulty reduces (increases) search. Six studies show that goal systems theory holds when a maximize accuracy or minimize effort goal is more accessible, that is, is deliberately pursued. The results have implications for how decision difficulty influences information search, satisficing, and choice quality.

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A Recipe for Honest Consumer Research


Stijn MJ van Osselaer, Chris Janiszewski

2021 In the past decade, consumer research using experiments has experienced a crisis of confidence. Research in our field has rightfully been criticized for p-hacking, Hypothesizing After the Results are Known, and other practices that lead to overestimation of the reliability and replicability of published results. Remediation has centered on more closely approximating the ideal hypothetico-deductive method. There has been a push towards forming, and registering, one or few hypotheses before running experiments, testing only those hypotheses, and testing each hypothesis with a single, preplanned analysis. We argue that doing better hypothetico-deductive experiments is not the (whole) solution and that p-hacking and HARKing are not the problem per se. The problem is that we misrepresent exploratory research as hypothetico-deductive. Forcing exploratory research into a hypothetico-deductive straightjacket leads to bad hypothesis testing. The straightjacket also leads to bad exploration, crowding out essential, good exploration that deserves space in our journals. We propose a recipe for more honest consumer research, in which authors report exploratory studies meant to generate hypotheses followed by truly hypothetico-deductive studies that test those hypotheses.

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Time to pay attention to attention: using attention-based process traces to better understand consumer decision-making

Marketing Letters

Milica Mormann, Tom Griffiths, Chris Janiszewski, J Edward Russo, Anocha Aribarg, Nathaniel JS Ashby, Rajesh Bagchi, Sudeep Bhatia, Aleksandra Kovacheva, Martin Meissner, Kellen J Mrkva

2020 This paper examines consumers’ attention traces (e.g., sequences of eye fixations and saccades) during choice. Due to reduced equipment cost and increased ease of analysis, attention traces can reflect a more fine-grained representation of decision-making activities (e.g., formation of a consideration set, alternative evaluation, and decision strategies). Besides enabling a better understanding of actual consumer choice, attention traces support more complex models of choice, and point to the prospects of specific interventions at various stages of the choice process. We identify and discuss promising areas for future research.

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The Bad Can Be Good: When Benign and Malicious Envy Motivate Goal Pursuit

Journal of Consumer Research

Anthony Salerno, Juliano Laran, Chris Janiszewski

2019 Benign and malicious envy are a consequence of an unfavorable upward comparison to another individual (i.e., a negative self-other discrepancy). Benign (malicious) envy occurs when people believe the envied individual deserves (does not deserve) his/her advantage. Prior research has shown that benign envy motivates a person to address the self-other discrepancy via self-improvement, whereas malicious envy does not. This research shows that both types of envy, not just benign envy, can motivate self-improvement, provided that the opportunities to do so occur outside the envy-eliciting domain. Benign envy increases the accessibility of the belief that effort determines whether people are rewarded; hence, it motivates process-focused goal pursuit and the use of products that emphasize effort-dependent self-improvement. Malicious envy increases the accessibility of the belief that the effort does not determine whether people are rewarded; hence, it motivates outcome-focused goal pursuit and the use of products that emphasize effort-independent self-improvement. Implications and potential extensions in the areas of envy, self-conscious emotions, and goals are discussed.

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Languages (1)

  • English