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Craig Albert, PhD - Augusta University. Augusta, GA, US

Craig Albert, PhD

Professor of Political Science and Graduate Director of the Master of Arts in Intelligence and Security Studies | Augusta University

Augusta, GA, UNITED STATES

Dr. Craig Albert focuses on national security, cyberconflict, ethnic conflict, and political thought.

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Biography

Albert is the director of the Master of Arts in Intelligence and Security Studies and an associate professor of political science at Augusta University. He received his PhD in international relations and American politics from the University of Connecticut in 2009. His research interests include ethnic conflict and terrorism, theology and modern politics, and political science education. His work has been published in journals including Politics, East European Politics, Iran and the Caucasus, and Journal of Political Science Education. He co-founded and directs Augusta University's Model United Nations Program and teaches courses on American politics, security studies and political philosophy, as well as topics of special interest, including zombies and international relations, hip hop and politics, and James Bond and terrorism.

Areas of Expertise (4)

Ethnic Conflict

Terrorism

Political Science

National Security

Education (3)

University of Connecticut: Ph.D., Political Science and Government 2009

University of Connecticut: Master of Arts, Political Science and Government 2003

Augusta State University: Bachelor of Arts, Political Science and Government 2001

Affiliations (2)

  • Educational Testing Services Advanced Placement/Reader Certification
  • Armatus Sexual Abuse Risk Management Certification

Media Appearances (42)

TikTTik Tok is a ticking time bomb we must defuse before it’s too late

The Hill  online

2024-05-04

U.S.-China relations have reached a point where the possibility of a full-blown conflict between the two nations cannot be denied. Clearly, no rational person wants this scenario to occur. But if it does, it’s likely the first “shots fired” would not be through conventional weaponry, but a secret weapon China possesses that even at this very moment is locked on to over 150 million American citizens: TikTok.

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China launches third aircraft carrier

The Washington Times  print

2024-05-01

China began sea trials for the third aircraft carrier for its People’s Liberation Army on Wednesday, Chinese state media reported. The official Chinese military website announced the carrier sea trials in a three-paragraph dispatch from Shanghai. “The ship left Shanghai Jiangnan Shipyard at around 8 a.m. The sea trials will primarily test the reliability and stability of the aircraft carrier’s propulsion and electrical systems,” the notice said. The new carrier joins what the Pentagon called in its latest annual report the largest military fleet in the world with 370 ships and submarines. That total includes 140 surface warships, highlighted by the carrier development. “With TikTok, the [Chinese Communist Party] has a platform that both collects data on users and over which it has complete control of what content is delivered to users,” the report said. “The United States is failing to compete with China in the information warfare realm because of divisions and disunified policies.” “The U.S. is behind its strategic near-peer competitors, specifically China, due to the lack of a clearly implemented and unified approach, definitional chaos within the information environment, and inefficient utilization of evolving data and information into intelligence,” the report said. Craig Albert, one of the authors, told Inside the Ring the report shows how and why the United States is lagging behind China in ways that constitute a national security threat. “To alleviate the concerns and protect the U.S. from Chinese and other forms of influence operations, we recommend a unified approach, either through a unified command, or a consistent strategy [inside the] Department of Defense,” said Mr. Albert, a political science professor at August University in Georgia. “Once this occurs, the U.S. can more efficiently go on the offensive, and set the narrative on its own terms, rather than acting reactively.”

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Cyber experts debate possible TikTok ban, national security vs. free speech

securityinfowatch.com  online

2024-04-30

As the U.S. lawmakers and President Biden have approved legislation that makes a ban on TikTok in the U.S. more likely, cybersecurity experts have differing opinions on whether a ban would be effective and if free speech rights would suffer. The bill passed recently require the app’s Chinese owner, ByteDance, to sell its stake in TikTok or face a U.S. ban. A ban could also face legal challenges due to potential violation of First Amendment rights for the app’s 170 million users in the U.S. A ban isn’t the only solution or the best solution, but it’s the quick solution to preventing national security ramifications from TikTok, says Craig Albert, a political science professor and Graduate Director of the Master of Arts in Intelligence and Security Studies program at Augusta University. A sale might be more politically palatable than an outright ban if ByteDance could integrate itself within U.S. infrastructure rather than China’s.

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How governments use artificial intelligence to enhance their information warfare and influence operations

Voices of America  radio

2024-04-23

Artificial intelligence continues to play a role in modern information warfare, revolutionizing the way data is processed, analyzed, and disseminated. As technology advances, understanding the intersection of AI and information warfare becomes increasingly crucial in safeguarding the integrity of information ecosystems. To take a closer look at how the United States, China, and Russia use AI in their respective information warfare operations, VOA’s Steve Miller caught up with Augusta University professors Lance Hunter and Craig Albert. Authorities say they've uncovered hundreds of bodies at Gaza hospitals. A U.S. Congressional deligation is in Ukraine.

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Why would ISIS-K Attack a Moscow Music Venue?

Voices of America  online

2024-03-25

The alleged perpetrators of the attack on a Moscow music venue appeared in court as the nation mourned the loss of more than 130. Craig Albert, political science professor and graduate director of the Master of Arts in Intelligence and Security Studies at Augusta University in Georgia, shares takeaways from what’s known. Russia carried out attacks on Ukraine’s infrastructure, while Kyiv says it destroyed a pair of Russian naval vessels docked in Crimea. Israeli forces continue their operations around two hospitals in Gaza. Senegalese officials begin counting votes from Sunday’s election.

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The TikTok Ban Is Truly An Issue Of National Security

Voices of America  online

2024-03-15

As Beijing already bans most U.S. social media platforms, the most obvious question to ask is why should Washington allow a Chinese-owned app to be available in the United States? The answer, according to most experts, is that it probably shouldn't—but this is more than just a case of turnabout being fair play, or a tit-for-tat response. TikTok could be seen as a valid national security threat, warned lawmakers this week. The issues go far deeper than just the user data that China could access. "TikTok, owned by ByteDance, presents significant cybersecurity concerns for the United States, primarily due to the potential exploitation of its vast user base and the Chinese company's access to user data. The scale of TikTok's user engagement, combined with China's track record of aggressive cyber activities, raises the specter of sophisticated cyber threats targeting American users, including surveillance, data breaches, and manipulation of online discourse," warned Lisa Plaggemier, executive director of The National Cybersecurity Alliance.

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U.S. Army, AU hold workshop on artificial intelligence and its potential threats

WRDW  tv

2024-01-11

Every day, the world of artificial intelligence continues to grow. From social media to school, AI is used just about everywhere. On Thursday, Augusta University teamed up with the U.S. Army Cyber Center of Excellence for a workshop about defending our community from unsuspecting dangers. If you think you haven’t had a run-in with AI, think again.

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United We Stand | Issues that divide us: Race

WJBF  tv

2023-11-27

When our founding fathers declared their independence from England, they didn’t include everyone. Slaves had no rights until congress passed the 13th amendment granting their freedom, following a bloody civil war. Dr. Craig Albert said, “We have the great original sin being slavery, then the Jim Crow Laws, everything that happened in the 40’s, 50’s and 60’s. In 1970, a race riot broke out in Augusta. It was sparked by the killing of a black teenager in the Richmond County Jail.

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FLASHPOINT: GLOBAL CRISES - First Hostages Released in Israel-Hamas Cease-Fire Deal

Voices of America  online

2023-11-24

A four-day cease-fire between Israel and Hamas has taken hold. Hamas has released the first group of hostages, and Israel has allowed tanker trucks loaded with fuel and cooking gas into Gaza. Qatar has emerged as one of the main negotiators in the talks between Israel and Hamas. How did this come to be? VOA Urdu’s Faiza Bukhari gets the answer from Dan Arbell, Scholar at Center for Israeli Studies at American University. Ukraine prepares to evacuate stranded truck drivers near the Polish border. What foreign policy recommendations can be made from researching anti-American propaganda on the X platform in Arabic speaking countries like Saudi Arabia? VOA’s Steve Miller speaks with the two of authors of the upcoming paper detailing the study: Craig Albert and Ahmed Aleroud, both from Augusta University in Georgia. Ahead of the COP28 climate conference, China is pressing ahead with ambitious nuclear energy expansion plans. Can nuclear generation help the world’s largest carbon emitter to make the transition to clean energy?

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United We Stand | Issues that divide us: Religion

WJBF  tv

2023-11-20

In God we trust. It’s America’s motto. We are a country founded on faith. In part three of her series, “United We Stand: Issues that divide us”, Mary Morrison takes a closer look at what our first amendment right guarantees and what can happen when religious diversity is not respected.

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United We Stand | Issues that divide us: Immigration

WJBF  tv

2023-11-13

America. It’s one big melting pot. Except for Native Americans, all of our forefathers came from another country. And there are millions of people still trying to get into this nation of immigrants. In part two of “United We Stand, Issues That Divide Us”, Mary Morrison takes a closer look at Immigration. And she introduces to us a young man who almost made that dangerous journey to the U.S. They are willing to risk their very lives to escape the corruption, crime and poverty that plague many Central American countries, just for a chance at starting a new life in America. “The easiest way to get in is through political asylum,” said Dr. Craig Albert. “Show that you are a political refugee that your government is oppressing you, that your only hope is to get into the United States.” Gerson considered taking that dangerous path to what many migrants see as the “promised land.”

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United We Stand: Issues that divide us – Guns

WJBF  tv

2023-11-06

Guns. In America, we have the right to bear arms. It’s guaranteed by the second Amendment in the Bill of Rights. Dr. Craig Albert is a political science professor at Augusta University. Dr. Albert said, “Of course when the founding framers wrote that, they didn’t know about the types of weapons we could have today, so it’s up to debate whether the founding framers would still keep that as is if they knew the type of weapons we have today.”

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A look at why Hamas and Israel are at war

WJBF  tv

2023-10-27

On this edition of The Means Report, we look at the war between Israel and Hamas. Augusta University Political Scientist Craig Albert is our guest. He looks at the reasons behind this conflict and how it all started. He also discusses the role of the U.S. Watch our interview and learn how the situation in the Middle East has international ramifications. Join us for The Means Report Monday afternoon at 12:30 on NewsChannel 6.

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X's Misinformation Problem Is Getting Worse

Forbes  online

2023-10-14

Tech entrepreneur Elon Musk has touted how X—the platform formally known as Twitter—could replace traditional media with near real-time updates as news is breaking. Yet, in the past week, X has instead been largely overtaken by misinformation coming out of the Middle East. Since the start of the heaviest fighting seen in the region in nearly a decade, there has been a constant flow of fake photos, old videos and even some video game footage presented as coming from the region. X has been accused of allowing fake social media accounts to spread misinformation about the ongoing conflict...

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Russia's Social Media Propagandists Turning On The War—We Should Expect A Crackdown

Forbes  print

2023-09-11

Since the start of Russia's so-called "special military operation" in late February 2022, the pro-Kremlin "milbloggers" who regularly report on the war via the Telegram social messaging app have carried water for President Vladimir Putin without question. Their online posts—which had often put a positive spin on the war effort to boost support among their fellow countrymen, as well as to legitimize the conflict to an international audience—was rarely critical of Moscow. However, following the short-lived Wagner Group coup earlier this year, there have been cracks in the support that the propagandists have offered. As Ukraine's counteroffensive has picked up steam and made success in recent weeks, the milbloggers have become increasingly critical of the war effort—if not Putin directly. It now appears that Moscow may be forced to take action and reel in any dissent.

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Rise Of The Machine Learning—Deep Fakes Could Threaten Our Democracy

Forbes  print

2023-09-10

For years, there have been warnings about the danger of AI, and most critics have suggested the machines could take over in a scenario similar to science fiction films such as The Terminator or The Matrix, where they literally rise up and enslave humanity. Yet, the clear and present danger could actually be AI used to deceive voters as we head into the next primary season. "Deep Fakes are almost certain to influence the 2024 elections," warned Dr. Craig Albert, professor of political science and graduate director of the Master of Arts in Intelligence and Security Studies at Augusta University. "In fact, the U.S. Intelligence Community expected these types of social media influence operations to occur during the last major election cycle, 2022, but they did not occur to any substantial effect," Albert noted.

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FLFLASHPOINT UKRAINE: The Aftermath Of Prigozhin’s Rebellion

Voices of America  online

2023-06-26

It was an unprecedented challenge to Russian President Vladimir Putin by fighters from Wagner paramilitary forces. Analysts weigh in on the weekend’s events and what it may mean for Russia moving forward. Meanwhile, front-line Ukrainian fighters say their fight with Russia has not subsided.

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Boston suspects "lone wolf" extremists?

Fox News  tv

2013-04-19

Fox News host Megyn Kelly interviews political scientist Craig Albert about the Boston Marathon suspects.

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Young Americans prepare to vote

CTV Canada  tv

2016-11-08

Dr. Craig Albert discusses the importance of the millennial vote for the 2016 presidential election.

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Terror na Catalunha

Revista Veja  print

2017-08-19

Terrorist attacks like the ones that recently happened in Spain's Catalonia Region are a result of ISIS losing ground in Syria and Iraq, Dr. Craig Albert, associate professor of political science, told Veja, Latin America's largest news magazine with more than 1 million subscribers. "There is a new strategy, launched about 10 months ago, that has gained track recently. The more they lose territory in Iraq and Syria, the more they ask foreign militants to stay in their countries and commit acts of terrorism there instead of joining them abroad," Albert said.

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Many millennials remain undecided as Election Day approaches

KMVT11  

2016-09-28

"I would not be surprised at all if they're disengaged from this debate," said AU Political Science Professor, Dr. Craig Albert.

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President Trump's visit to the Middle East

Gulan Mydia  online

2017-06-06

Dr. Craig Albert discusses the meaning behind President Trump's visit to the Middle East. The interview was published by Gulan Mydia, a Kurdish media organization.

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Local political science experts weigh in on the Presidential debate

wrdw12  online

2016-09-27

When it came the first presidential debate, two local political science professors said the candidates said a lot, without getting very deep into these issues.

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Can ISIS ever be defeated?

WJBF  tv

2016-06-20

The massacre on a Pulse Nightclub in Orlando, Florida, was carried out in the name of ISIS. While the FBI believes the “mission” was not orchestrated by the extremist group itself, it is still one of many carried out in the name of the radical Islamic sect. Political scientist Craig Albert joined “The Means Report” to offer his expertise on ISIS and terrorism and to address whether stricter gun laws will help protect U.S. citizens.

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Richmond, Columbia counties inch toward 100K registered voters ahead of Election Day

WJBF  

2016-09-27

Craig Albert, an Assistant Professor of Political Science at Augusta University, told NewsChannel 6, “People that are on the fence about for whom to vote or whether to vote at all, neither candidate is appealing to them at all.”

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Digging deeper: How can we stay safe in the aftermath of violence such as the Orlando shooting?

WJBF  

2016-06-15

Political scientist Craig Albert addressed the divide in our country, as some call the gun control issue (after shootings like this) a distraction, believing the underlying problem here is Islamic terrorism. Dr. Albert also describes how ISIS targets recruits and quickly radicalizes people.

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Augusta University Professor Breaks Down Brussels Attacks

WJBF  

2016-03-22

An Augusta University professor sat down with News Channel 6 about the terrorist attacks ISIS claimed responsibility for in Belgium. Craig Albert, a local terrorism expert said the deadly incident performed by the Islamic extremists is a recruiting tool and fear tactic.

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Behind the political headlines

WJBF  tv

2021-07-05

Listen, let’s start with that voting lawsuit against the voting law in the state of Georgia filed by President Biden’s Department of Justice, the attorney general leading the way there, does it stand a chance of overturning the law? Can you tell if Georgia’s law is unconstitutional? I think it follow the same trajectory as Arizona. Of course the federal government has a right to sue a state if it thinks the state is being discriminatory or isn’t being inclusive in its voting rights and regulations. So the DOJ has a right to do that. They would have to prove that the state of Georgia is willingly or intending to discriminate or to exclude certain groups or people from voting purposefully for their lawsuit to succeed, which would then force Georgia if it did succeed, it would force Georgia to then redo the law and remake the law to make it more inclusive and accepting to everybody.

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“No need to rush to the gas station”, pipeline shutdown temporary

WJBF  tv

2021-05-11

A fear of rising gas prices after the Colonial Pipeline cyber attack has some lined up at local gas stations. But experts say gas is not a scarcity. While there is a temporary slow down, “panic buying” is often mistaken for a shortage. Colonial Pipeline delivers 45 percent of fuel in the southeast. They were victim to a ransomware attack by the group “DarkSide”. Cyberattack on US pipeline is linked to criminal gang “Ransomware is when somebody takes over your system or your network, and in order to release it or go active again, you have to give them a ransom,” said Dr. Craig Albert, professor of intelligence and security studies at Augusta University. “And for this group it’s usually between like $200 thousand and $2 million, so it’s quite significant.” In a statement Friday, Colonial Pipeline said they temporarily halted operations to contain the threat. “They found out about it, it looks like, before the full attack was initiated. So then they shut everything off as a preemptive move,” Dr. Albert said.

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From Russia to elections: How secure is the United States?

WJBF  tv

2022-02-10

The Means Report turns its focus to all things political that are going on in the world right now. Certainly, the Russian threat constantly in the headlines. One year in to Joe Biden’s presidency, how are things going? Also, the upcoming nomination of a Supreme Court nominee, if you will, to replace the retiring Justice Breyer, that breaking just really before we started taping The Means Report pretty much. So, we’ll talk about that and everything else going on in our nation and world with our resident political scientist. He’s an Associate Professor of Political Science at Augusta University, also serves as the Director of the Master of Arts in Intelligence and Security Studies at AU, Craig Albert.

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Local expert breaks down dispute in Ukraine

WJBF  tv

2022-02-17

Tensions remain high between the United States and Russia over Russia’s military buildup near the Ukranian border. NATO defense ministers say they’re concerned that Russia could try to overtake Ukraine. They say Russia has built up the largest concentration of forces in Europe since the Cold War. Dr. Craig Albert, Associate Professor of Political Science at Augusta University and Graduate Director of Intelligence and Security Studies spoke with NewsChannel 6 about the dispute. He said it stems back to the Cold War.

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Why Americans should care about the Ukraine-Russia conflict

ABC News  online

2022-02-20

After weeks of mounting tensions, United States officials have warned that a Russian attack on Ukraine could happen "any day now." Russia has spent weeks building up military forces near eastern Ukraine, with more than 150,000 troops encircling Ukraine in Belarus and on the Russian side of the border, according to U.S. officials.

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President Biden advancing sanctions in Russia

WFXG  tv

2022-02-22

President Biden held a press conference Tuesday saying they're advancing sanctions in Russia. Dr. Craig Albert, assistant professor of political science and director of intelligence and security studies at Augusta University says, “if Russia goes further with this invasion, we stand prepared to go further as with sanctions.” Albert says this is becoming an economic conflict, hitting the Russian elite and those in parliament personally. “So that means if you’re a member of the Duma in Russia, that’s what their parliament is called, and you have any funds; business funds, personal, checking account tied to a Western Bank, you will no longer have access to that starting tomorrow."

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Why the West cares about the situation in Russia-Ukraine

CTV News  tv

2022-02-24

As tensions continue to escalate between Russia and Ukraine, experts are warning the crisis may lead to a global conflict and could impact Western countries, including the state of their democracies. Ukraine began urging its citizens to leave Russia after tensions escalated dramatically Tuesday when Russian President Vladimir Putin got the OK from lawmakers to use military force outside his country. This comes after Putin signed a decree recognizing two pro-Russian breakaway regions in eastern Ukraine as independent entities, which Western nations fear are potential ground zeros for invasion.

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Russia attacks Ukraine

CTV News  tv

2022-02-25

Dr. Craig Albert of Augusta University talks Russia/Ukraine with CTV News

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Dr. Craig Albert talks Russia/Ukraine

CTV News  tv

2022-02-27

Dr. Craig Albert talks about the latest on the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

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Responding to the Russia attack

WJBF  tv

2022-02-28

As Russia invades the Ukraine and the United States unleashes new sanctions on the communist country, The Means Report talks to Augusta University political scientist – Dr. Craig Albert – about what comes next and what impact we will possibly feel here at home.

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The cyber factor in Ukraine

National Cyber News Today  online

2022-03-15

As Russia massed troops along its border with Ukraine over the last few months, it was unclear whether Russian President Vladimir Putin would invade. But if he did, experts warned, Russia would bombard the nation with a series of cyberattacks to sow confusion and weaken its resolve. On Feb. 24, Putin unveiled his plans. Moscow’s war machine rolled into the Eastern European nation. The combined Russian air, land and sea assault was preceded by waves of cyberattacks, the sort of gray-zone meddling analysts and defense officials had foreseen. Websites were hamstrung. Malware coursed through computers. Communications were hampered.

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FLASHPOINT UKRAINE: Olena Zelenska asks US Congress for weapons so Ukrainians may return to normalcy

Voices of America  radio

2022-07-20

Ukraine’s First Lady delivers impassioned remarks to the US Congress. Plus, what challenges face Kyiv as the officials say they will not cede territory to Russia, even though US intelligence suggests Moscow may annex occupied territory, as it did in 2014.

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FLASHPOINT UKRAINE: Russia’s “Operational Defeat” in Kharkiv

Voices of America  online

2022-09-12

Dr. Craig Albert discusses the latest on the Ukraine-Russia battle in which Ukraine is making ground as Russian forces withdraw.

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One on One with Richard Rogers | Russia’s War in Ukraine

WRDW  tv

2023-06-19

Dr. Craig Albert specializes in intelligence and security studies at Augusta University. Dr. Albert talks one on one with Richard Rogers about Russia’s war in Ukraine.

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X's Misinformation Problem Is Getting Worse

Forbes  online

2023-10-04

X—the platform formally known as Twitter—has been accused in the past week of allowing fake social media accounts to spread misinformation about the ongoing conflict. Both sides have sought to win hearts and minds largely by showing the brutality of the war. "It must be stated that the situation is still unfolding, and it is probably one of the most complicated, complex scenarios for intelligence and influence operations to date," explained Dr. Craig Albert, professor of political science and graduate director of the Master of Arts in Intelligence and Security Studies program at Augusta University. "Hamas has largely been trying to demonstrate that Israel is a rogue state, a pariah regime, oppressing and slaughtering innocent Palestinians. They are even posting videos and images of Russian phosphorus attacks against Ukraine earlier this year and stating that it is current Israeli strikes in the Gaza Strip." That has been just one attempt by Hamas to gain sympathy and legitimacy for its actions.

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Answers (15)

Can we tell the difference between real and fake where AI is involved?

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There’s nothing the public can do in determining if the AI generated images or propaganda is real or not. So right now the public really just has to rely on the U.S. Intelligence community and the social networks, social media networks themselves to tell you if something is AI generated or if it’s been altered or might be a deepfake. The intelligence community of the United States has the capability to tell us something is a deepfake, for instance, through its reverse AI technology.

How is AI a dangerous tool that's being used today? 

View Answer >

AI is a very new tool that can influence people’s minds and influence elections overall. The first way AI can really damage and interfere with an election is through the use of what we call ‘deep fakes’. AI can be utilized to create fake pictures, fake movies, fake videos, with sound, that look and sound identical to the person they are trying to impersonate on the video.

Can Ukraine overcome a war of attrition against Russia? 

View Answer >

“If Ukraine manages to get F-16s in the fight sooner rather than later, and longer-range missiles are given to them as well, this could cause a stalemate and force Russia into negotiation."

Articles (15)

Analyzing influence operations on Facebook: an exploratory study

Springer Link

Craig Albert, Lance Y. Hunter, Samantha Mullaney, Meagan Mays

2024-05-01

Recently, there have been groundbreaking studies that seek to create unique cybersecurity datasets used to empirically test theories related to strategic cybersecurity. To date, however, this research has neglected cyber-enabled information operations (CEIO). With the remarkable amount of information operations being reported on social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, there is a substantial gap in the literature regarding empirical studies on CEIO using cross-national datasets. This exploratory, descriptive study seeks to remedy this dilemma. To do so, this paper investigates the question, “What are the political and economic characteristics of states that are most likely to be targeted by CEIO over social media on Facebook?” To investigate, this exploratory, descriptive study utilizes a unique Information Operations Threat Report Dataset (2020) based on Facebook’s release of 2020 influence operations information that captures CEIO on its platform from 2017 to 2020. A descriptive data analysis reveals that mixed regimes (i.e., states that are partially authoritarian and democratic) and slightly wealthier states are more likely to be targeted in CEIO on Facebook. These exploratory findings provide useful insights into what types of states may be more susceptible to CEIO attacks on Facebook.

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The military application of artificial intelligence technology in the United States, China, and Russia and the implications for global security

Taylor & Francis Online

Lance Y. Hunter, Craig Albert, Christopher Hennigan and Josh Rutland

2023-05-11

A number of studies have considered the theoretical role that Artificial Intelligence (AI) may play in shaping the global balance of power in the future. While these studies are informative, we currently lack an understanding regarding the precise manner AI technologies are being applied and incorporated in militaries in major power states. Thus, in this study, we examine how AI technology is being applied in the militaries in the US, China, and Russia and analyse the implications for the future of AI, global military competition, and international security. We examine current research on the military application of AI technology in the US, China, and Russia and conduct expert interviews with leading AI experts in academia, think tanks, multinational technology companies, and the military to better understand how AI technology is being applied in the three major powers states and the implications for global security.

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Artificial intelligence and information warfare in major power states: how the US, China, and Russia are using artificial intelligence in their information warfare and influence operations

Taylor & Francis Online

Lance Y. Hunter, Craig Albert, Josh Rutland, Kristen Topping, Christopher Hennigan

2024-03-05

Previous research in security studies contends that information warfare (IW) is becoming a critical element in states' overall security strategies. Additionally, many researchers posit that artificial intelligence (AI) is quickly emerging as an important component of digital communications and states' military applications worldwide. However, less is known regarding how states are incorporating AI in their information warfare and influence operations (IWIO). Thus, given the growing importance of AI and IW in global security, this paper examines how the United States, China, and Russia are incorporating AI in their IWIO strategies and tactics. We find that the US, China, and Russia are utilizing AI in their IWIO approaches in significant ways depending on each state's overall IW strategy, with important implications for international security.

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Twitter Propaganda Operations: Analyzing Sociopolitical Issues in Saudi Arabia

Sage Journals

Craig Douglas Albert, Ahmed Aleroud, and Josh Rutland

2023-12-23

The purpose of this article is to explore Arabic-language Tweets based out of Saudi Arabia to investigate the social media landscape. Specifically, this article seeks to address the question, “What thematic issues concerning the U.S. socio-political landscape are present in Arabic-language Twitter postings?” And, “To what extent can these issues be described as propagandic in nature?” To do so, we propose a machine-learning and artificial intelligence span detection approach to identify propaganda Tweets in Middle Eastern Countries, with a focus on Saudi Arabia. As opposed to previous work, this article maps and investigates different propaganda categories using the BEND Social Cyber Security framework. This article then proceeds to a case study analysis of state-sponsored targeted propaganda from Saudi Arabia and briefly describes the categories of propaganda uncovered. We then relate those categories to the BEND Framework and conclude with policy recommendations and discussion.

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Weaponizing Words: Using Technology to Proliferate Information Warfare

The Cyber Defense Review

Craig Douglas Albert, Ph.D., Lance Y Hunter, PhD, Samantha Mullaney Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Huitt, Lydia Snyder

2023-12-05

The United States risks losing its information advantage over its near-peer competitors, specifically China. One reason behind this possibility is that the U.S. lacks a coherent doctrine of information warfare, which has put the U.S. at a disadvantage. Considering the Russian interference in elections of several North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) states and allies, including Ukraine, Germany, and, the United States, most stunningly in the 2016 presidential election, this article addresses the question: What is to be done? Before delving into possible solutions, the exact nature of the complex problem must be explored. The purpose of this article is to investigate the ways the U.S. could improve in information warfare, specifically against one of its top near-peer competitors, China. First, this article summarizes how China compares with the United States concerning information warfare and influence operations. Second, it delves into some of the definitional chaos in which the U.S. is mired. Thirdly, the article illustrates the doctrinal and data policies of the U.S. Department of Defense. Finally, it concludes with policy recommendations.

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Epidemiological intelligence fusion centers: health security and COVID-19 in the Dominican Republic

Taylor & Francis Online

Craig Albert, Alejandro Amando Baez, Lance Hunter, John Heslen, John Rutland

2022 Research on health security has focused on how many different political, economic, social, and health-related factors affect disease containment within states. However, largely missing from this scholarship is an examination of the role public health intelligence plays in limiting the spread of disease. Thus, this study focuses on the effect epidemiological intelligence fusion centers have on disease prevalence. We conduct a case study analysis of the Dominican Republic’s use of epidemiological intelligence fusion centers during the COVID-19 pandemic and provide policy recommendations for other states to follow.

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Democracy and cyberconflict: how regime type affects state-sponsored cyberattacks

Journal Of Cyber Policy

Dr. Craig Albert, Dr. Lance Hunter, Eric Garrett, Josh Rutland

2022 A large body of research in international relations has focused on the relationship between regime type (i.e., the degree a nation is democratic or authoritarian) and traditional military conflict between states. However, to date, no research has examined how regime type affects conflict in the cyber domain. Thus, we attempt to analyze the effect regime type has on the initiation of state-sponsored cyberattacks. We examine 143 states from 2005 - 2013 utilizing cyber data on known state-sponsored cyberattacks taken from the Council on Foreign Relations Cyber Operations Tracker dataset (CFR-COTD) and economic, political, military, and social data collected by the authors. In conducting a cross-sectional, time series analysis we find that democratic institutions have a pacifying effect on the initiation of state-sponsored cyberattacks.

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A Hitchhiker’s Guide to “Democracy in America”

Journal of Political Science Education

2016 One of the most challenging issues any instructor of political philosophy faces is how to get college students interested and engaged in a discipline composed mostly of 'a bunch of dead white guys.' The task is hard enough for students already interested in theory and is even more daunting for the general education American government classroom.

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The ethno-violence nexus: measuring ethnic group identity in Chechnya

East European Politics

2014 If scholars and policy-makers are to understand contemporary ethnic conflict, we must first understand ethnic group identity. I make the case that ethnic group identity has substantial effects on collective action, particularly violent conflict, and a mechanism must exist to predict behaviour to properly measure ethnic group identity. This study asks, then: what exactly is ethnic group identity and can it be accurately measured? I address this by developing the Ethnic Group Identity Index (EGII), which seeks to measure the strength of ethnic group identity. I then use the EGII to measure strength of ethnic group identity within Chechnya. The implications abound for policy-makers in matters of conflict management strategies for the Russo-Chechen conflict, and more generally, for all ethnic politics.

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Teaching with Tocqueville: Assessing the Utility of Using ‘Democracy’ in the American Government Classroom to Achieve Student-Learning Outcomes

Journal of Political Science Education

2014 There is a debate in Political Science concerning how best to teach American Government courses. We investigate whether students learn more effectively with texts from the great tradition or from textbooks and other secondary sources. Which medium better guides students toward becoming better citizens? We examine how teaching “The Great Tradition” may increase success in student-learning outcomes. We examine four categories of learning outcomes in the Introduction to American Government classroom: general knowledge, ...

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Defining Our Terms: Bringing Rigour to Ethnic Studies

Politics

2012 For decades, political scientists have grappled with the role identity has played in ethnic conflict. Surprisingly, these scholars have been unsuccessful in rigorously conceptualising some key terms in the field of ethnic studies. How can the causal forces of ethnic strife be unravelled if scholars cannot even agree on the meanings of essential concepts? This article carefully delineates the differences between ethnicity, ethnic groups and ethnic group identity, while showing the conceptual mistakes of some of the field's leading scholars. Often treated synonymously, these concepts are quite distinct: ignoring this not only makes for sloppy scholarship, but has grave policy consequences.

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Towards a General Theory of Ethnic Conflict: Explaining Identity and Violence in Chechnya

International Journal of Security Studies and Practice

Craig Albert

2023-02-28

The purposes of this article are to develop the beginnings of a general theory of ethnic conflict. Specifically, this paper examines and builds upon identity politics and the relationship between ethnic group identity and deadly ethnic violence. It develops the connection more clearly between three integral concepts including societal security, ontological security, and securitization. This paper argues that salient ethnic group identity acts as an underlying catalyst to deadly ethnic violence. Groups with salient identities often view their identity as a measure of security. Thus, any threat to a group’s identity, either perceived or real, is a threat to the group’s physical existence. The processes behind this connection are examined. Understanding the nexus between identity and violence allows for further research testing the hypothesis that the more salient an ethnic group identity is, the more likely deadly conflict will result. This paper concludes with policy recommendations and possible solutions to identity securitization in Chechnya.

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The Fourth Industrial Revolution, Artificial Intelligence, and Domestic Conflict

Taylor & Francis Online

Lance Y. Hunter, Craig Albert, Josh Rutland & Chris Hennigan

2022-11-22

An emerging field of scholarship in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and computing posits that AI has the potential to significantly alter political and economic landscapes within states by reconfiguring labor markets, economies, and political alliances, leading to possible societal disruptions. Thus, this study examines the potential destabilizing economic and political effects AI technology can have on societies and the resulting implications for domestic conflict based on research within the fields of political science, sociology, economics, and artificial intelligence. In addition, we conduct interviews with 10 international AI experts from think tanks, academia, multinational technology companies, the military, and cyber to assess the possible disruptive effects of AI and how they can affect domestic conflict. Lastly, the study offers steps governments can take to mitigate the potentially destabilizing effects of AI technology to reduce the likelihood of civil conflict and domestic terrorism within states.

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Epidemic intelligence studies: A research agenda for political scientists

Cambridge University Press

Craig Albert

2023-03-24

This research letter introduces readers to health intelligence by conceptualizing critical components and providing a primer for research within political science broadly considered. Accordingly, a brief review of the literature is provided, concluding with possible future research agendas. The aim is to elaborate on the importance of public health intelligence to national security studies, and to political science more generally.

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Socio-Emotional Computational Analysis of Propaganda Campaigns on Social Media Users in the Middle East

ACM Digital Library

Zain Halloush, Ahmed Aleroud, Craig Albert,

2023-04-30

Society has been significantly impacted by social media platforms in almost every aspect of their life. This impact has been effectively formulating people’s global mindsets and opinions on political, economic, and social events. Such waves of opinion formation are referred to as propagandas and misinformation. Online propaganda influences the emotional and psychological orientation of people. The remarkable leaps in Machine Learning models and Natural Language Processing have helped in analyzing the emotional and psychological effects of cyber social threats such as propaganda campaigns on different nations, specifically in the Middle East, where rates of disputes have risen after the Arab Spring and the ongoing crises. In this paper, we present an approach to detect propagandas and the associated emotional and psychological aspects from social media news headlines that contain such a contextualized cyber social attack. We created a new dataset of headlines containing propaganda tweets and another dataset of potential emotions that the audience might endure when being exposed to such propaganda headlines. We believe that this is the first research to address the detection of emotional reactions linked to propaganda types on social media in the Middle East.

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