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Four Arrows (Wahinkpe Topa) AKA Don Trent Jacobs, PhD - Fielding Graduate University. Sequim, WA, US

Four Arrows (Wahinkpe Topa) AKA Don Trent Jacobs, PhD Four Arrows (Wahinkpe Topa) AKA Don Trent Jacobs, PhD

Doctoral Faculty - School of Leadership Studies | Fielding Graduate University


Sustainability; counter-hegemonic education; social justice; contrasting Indigenous ways of knowing with Western ones




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Four Arrows (Wahinkpe Topa) - Don Trent Jacobs is currently a faculty member in the School of Leadership Studies at Fielding Graduate University, which ranked in 2004 as the number one doctoral granting university for American Indians. From 2001 to 2007, he was a tenured Associate Professor at Northern Arizona University. From 1998-2001 he served as Dean of the Education Department at Oglala Lakota College. (OLC is a fully accredited 4-year tribal college on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota. ) He holds a PhD in health psychology (CPU) and an EdD in curriculum and instruction (BSU).

In addition to nearly 100 articles in magazines and peer-reviewed journals, he is the author of eighteen books and fourteen invited chapters about such diverse topics as Indigenous worldview; social and ecological justice; wellness; psycholinguistics; critical theory; teaching and learning; and neurophilosophy. In 2010, he published his first novel, Last Song of the Whale. This exciting and suspenseful adventure revolves around the Great Eastern Garbage Patch in the North Pacific Gyre.

Industry Expertise (5)

Education/Learning Environmental Services Political Organization Research Training and Development

Areas of Expertise (5)

Counter-Hegemonic Education Peace and Justice Studies Ecological Justice Indigenous Studies Indigenous Ways of Knowing

Accomplishments (3)

Moral Courage Award (professional)

Awarded by the Martin Springer Institute (2004)

Top 27 Visionary Educators (professional)

Awarded by AERO (2014)

Instrumental Creator of First National Marine Park (professional)

Four Arrows raised $30,000 to help create the first National Marine Park No Take Zone on Mexico's Mainland Pacific Coast, Costa Alegre Santuario Marino Nacional de Arroyo Seco. (September, 2014)

Education (4)

Boise State University: EdD, Curriculum and Instruction

Columbia Pacific University: PhD, Health Psychology

Golden Gate University: MA, Health Care Administration

Southwest Missouri State University: BS, Economics

Affiliations (3)

  • American Indian Congress
  • National Indian Education Association
  • Alternative Education Resource Organization

Media Appearances (3)

The Heart of Everything That Isn’t: The Untold Story of Anti-Indianism in Drury and Clavin’s Book on Red Cloud

Indian Country  online


I don’t mean for this to be a book review of The Heart of Everything That Is: The Untold Story of Red Cloud. An American Legend. Rather, I intend it to be an indictment of the genre of anti-Indianism it represents. Although it is unlikely that its authors consciously set out to try and prove Western civilization’s superiority over the “barbarous Indians,” they nonetheless follow in the footsteps of those who have tried to do so...

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Transformative Learning and the Indigenous "Worldview"

The Stringer Independent News  online


Worldwide, diverse Indigenous cultures possess a common “worldview” (IW) that contrasts significantly with that referred to as the “Western worldview.” (WW) One difference between them relates to the main source of authority for life decisions...

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Four Arrows on "Teaching Truly," We Are Change activist Eric Sayward on "Free Hugs"

American Freedom Radio  online


Four Arrows (Don Trent Jacobs), an education professor at Fielding Graduate University, has a new book out: Teaching Truly: A Curriculum to Indigenize Mainstream Education. It has garnered rave reviews from Noam Chomsky, Thom Hartmann, and Bill McKibben among others...

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Articles (16)

BOOK: Point of Departure: Returning to Our Authentic Worldview for Education and Survival Information Age Publishing

(2016) Charlotte, NC Point of Departure offers a practical metacognitive and transformational learning strategy for human surviving and thriving. Using five foundational and interactive Indigenous worldview beliefs that contrast sharply with our dominant worldview ones, everyone can reclaim the original instructions for living on Earth. Without the resulting change in consciousness that can emerge from this learning approach, no modern technologies can save us. The five foundational Indigenous precepts...

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The Authentic Ed.D. Program: Project-Based and Counter-Hegemonic Peter Lang Publisher

(2015) This first-of-its-kind text explores the EdD program as a crucible for equitable higher education and community leadership. It was inspired in part by the Carnegie Project on the Educational Doctorate (CPED) and, more broadly, by widespread international interest in the power of the EdD as a force for positive social change. The book’s range of cultural contexts and educational perspectives promises new insights and solutions for policy analysts, policy makers, executive administrators, faculty researchers, philanthropists, and policy beneficiaries. In contrast to the traditional PhD, the EdD typically attracts educational practitioners within school boards, government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), as well as standalone or internationally linked community associations...

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Ending Jim Crow with Worldview Studies: An Indigenous Perspective RIP Jim Crow: Fighting Racism through Higher Education Policy, Curriculum and Cultural Interventions

V. Stead (Series Ed.)

(2015) New York, NY: Peter Lang Publication
This book shouts out ways that we can and must respond to the sickening accumulation of racially inspired and systemically sanctioned deaths. Today, we remember the passing of young, Black Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri. In responding to this event, we are determined to dismantle the alexithymia (indifference to the suffering of others) that pervades our campuses. It is nothing less than a by-product of racism...

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Hegemonic barriers to the American EdD Higher education theory, policy, and praxis

(2015) Stead, V. (Vol.Ed.) The education doctorate (EdD): Issues of access, diversity, social justice and community leadership. In V. Stead (Series Ed) , Vol.5. New York: Peter Lang Publisher Globalization increasingly challenges higher education researchers, administrators, faculty members, and graduate students to address urgent and complex issues of equitable policy design and implementation. This book series provides an inclusive platform for discourse about – though not limited to – diversity, social justice, administrative accountability, faculty accreditation, student recruitment, admissions, curriculum, pedagogy, online teaching and learning, completion rates, program evaluation, cross-cultural relationship-building, and community leadership at all levels of society...

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Partnerships, Worldviews and “Primal Vibration” Lesson Plans Arts-Based Service Learning with First Peoples - Towards Respectful and Mutually Beneficial Educational Practices

Four Arrows & Katz, S. R.

(2015) B.L. Bartlet, D., Bennett, A. Power & N. Sunderland (Eds) New York: Springer
This chapter offers six goals for arts-based service learning (ABSL) based on Indigenous Worldviews, including complementarity, peacefulness, ecological sustainability, happiness, health, trust in the universe and respect for diversity. It offers a number of specific lesson plans that relate to learning partnerships between American university students and the Achuar community of Wchirpas, Ecuador...

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Reclaiming our Indigenous worldview: A more authentic baseline for Social/ecological justice work in education Working for social justice inside and outside the classroom: A community of students, teachers, researchers and activists

Four Arrows and Narvaez, D.

(2015) McCrary, N.E. and Ross, E. Wayne, (Eds.)
New York/Oxford: Peter Lang Publisher
What were once distinct professions for serving others and building knowledge are now communities of workers struggling against a tide of increasingly unregulated capitalism that is being fed by human greed. Teachers have become education workers, joining a working class that is rapidly falling behind and that is increasingly being silenced by the power elite who control nearly all the wealth that once supported a thriving middle class. Working for Social Justice Inside and Outside the Classroom delivers critical counter-narratives aimed at resisting the insatiable greed of a few...

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Native Studies, Praxis, and the Public Good Social Studies Curriculum, The: Purposes, Problems, and Possibilities

(2014) I believe it is time to think indigenous and act authentic even at the price of rejection. To disagree with mainstream expectations is to wake up, to understand what is happening, to be of service to a larger whole. You may even begin to work on behalf of our lands, water ...

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“False Doctrine” and the Stifling Of Indigenous Political Will Critical Education

(2014) I hypothesis that there is a correlation between the failure of Indigenous politics to achieve its goals and the sway of what Thomas Paine refers to as the false doctrine of Christian dogma. Unremitting evangelism and Christian hegemony has led to silencing or ...

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BOOK: Teaching Truly: A Curriculum to Indigenize Mainstream Education Peter Lang Publisher

Four Arrows (Don Trent Jacobs) with Kathryn England Aytes, G. Cajete, R. M. Fisher, B. A. Mann, E. McGaa, M. Sorensen

(2013) New York For the first time in educational publishing, Teaching Truly offers K–16 teachers course-specific guidelines for indigenizing mainstream education. The goal is to facilitate greater educational integrity and relevance in the classroom now, without waiting for more «reforms» to policy, standards or curricula in general. Incorporating reality-based teaching common in traditional Indigenous learning cultures, each chapter first exposes educational hegemony...

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BOOK: Differing Worldviews in Higher Education: Two Disagreeing Scholars Argue Cooperatively about Justice Education Sense Publishers

Four Arrows, Walter Block

(2011) Netherlands Two noted professors on opposite sides of the cultural wars come together and engage in "cooperative argumentation." One, a "Jewish, atheist libertarian" and the other a "mixed blood American Indian" bring to the table two radically different worldviews to bear on the role of colleges and universities in studying social and ecological justice. The result is an entertaining and enlightening journey that reveals surprising connections and previously misunderstood rationales that may be at the root of a world too polarized to function sanely...

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BOOK: Critical Neurophilosophy and Indigenous Wisdom Sense Publishers

Jacobs, D.T. (Four Arrows), Cajete, G. & Jongmin Lee

(2010) Netherlands This book begins a long overdue dialogue between Western neuropsychology and Indigenous wisdom. The latter holds that technology, including that which supports the neurosciences, is an important aspect of humanity, but that without a deeper understanding of the sacred, natural world, its consequences will continue to disrupt the balance of life on Earth. This book argues that without incorporating Indigenous wisdom into theories relating to brain research and scientific assumptions about human nature, humanity may never learn how to avoid this problem...

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BOOK: The Authentic Dissertation: Alternative Ways of Knowing, Research and Representation Routledge

(2008) London The Authentic Dissertation is a road map for students who want to make their dissertation more than a series of hoop-jumping machinations that cause them to lose the vitality and meaningfulness of their research...

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Review of Telling Stories to Change the World: Global Voices on the Power of Narrative to Build Community and Make Social Justice Claims The Teachers College Record

(2008) The editors of this collection of twenty-three essays from around the world declare that narrative, drama, drawing and other forms of story-telling can help mitigate injustice. The evidence for this declaration and their title's assertion about the “power of narrative to ...

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BOOK: Unlearning the Language of Conquest: Scholars Challenge Anti-Indianism in America University of Texas Press

(2006) Austin Responding to anti-Indianism in America, the wide-ranging perspectives culled in Unlearning the Language of Conquest present a provocative account of the contemporary hegemony still at work today...Bringing to light crucial information and perspectives on an aspect of humanity that pervades not only U.S. history but also current sustainability, sociology, and the ability to craft accurate understandings of the population as a whole, Unlearning the Language of Conquest yields a liberating new lexis for realistic dialogues.

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Native studies, praxis and the public good State University of New York Press

(2006) Overviews the primary issues teachers face when creating learning experiences for students in social studies.

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Preparing teachers of American Indian and Alaska native students Action in Teacher Education

(2002) Too often in the past, Indian education ignored the “Indian voice” and designed to teach Indian children to be discontented with their traditional values. Even today, teacher certification requirements give little if any attention to these values as they relate to cultural ...

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