hero image
Jane Paige, RN, Ph.D. - Milwaukee School of Engineering. Milwaukee, WI, US

Jane Paige, RN, Ph.D. Jane Paige, RN, Ph.D.

Professor, Program Director | Milwaukee School of Engineering


Dr. Jane Paige is an expert in educational simulations and interprofessional education.

Education, Licensure and Certification (6)

RN: Wisconsin 2022

Certified Nurse Educator: Certification 2021

Certified Healthcare Simulation Educator: Certification


Ph.D.: Nursing Education, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 2013

M.S.: Nursing, Concordia University Wisconsin 2002

B.S.: Nursing, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire 1980


Dr. Jane Paige is a professor and director of the B.S. in Nursing and Accelerated Second-Degree BSN programs at Milwaukee School of Engineering. She has done extensive research on using clinical simulation for nursing education and interprofessional education, which encourages co-learning between nursing and medical students.

Research Gate: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jane_Paige

Areas of Expertise (3)

Interprofessional Education

Nursing Education

Simulation as a Teaching Methodology

Accomplishments (3)

Harriet Werley Research Award


Karl O. Werwath Engineering Research Award


Chancellors Graduate Award: University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee [for current enrollment in Ph. D. program] Academic Year

2008-09, 2007-08, 2006-07

Affiliations (6)

  • National League of Nursing (NLN) : Member
  • American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) : Member
  • MSOE School of Nursing Honor Society : Member
  • Sigma Theta Tau - International Eta NU : Member
  • Society for Simulation in Healthcare : Member
  • International Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning (INACSL) : Member


Media Appearances (2)

Dr. Jane Paige

MSOE News  


Since earning her Ph.D., Paige continues to present and publish on educational simulations. “An ongoing project for me is creating modules for educating people across the country on how to use simulations and how to develop faculty to use simulations,” she said.

view more

Nursing programs turn away students despite shortage



Dr. Jane Paige uses her nursing skills mostly on mannequins. But, since she became a nursing instructor she said her view on a patient has changed. "Our students become our patients," Paige said. She hopes more experienced nurses will embrace that perspective. "There's a lot of people interested in nursing and sometimes they're turned away from programs because we can't accommodate that number," explained Paige.

view more

Event and Speaking Appearances (5)

Medical and nursing students interprofessional education (IPE): Perception before IPE and readiness for interprofessional practice following IPE

Building Bridges to Research Based Nursing Practice Conference  Milwaukee, WI, May 11 2018

Focusing your energies: Targeting your faculty training needs in simulation practices

Wisconsin League for Nursing and Illinois League Spring Banquet  Gateway Technical College, Kenosha, WI, April 25 2018

Operationalizing the revised INACSL Standards of Best Practice: Simulation

Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing (CASN)  Webinar, Oct 26 2017

Utilizing the newly revised 2016 edition of INACSL standards of best practice: SimulationSM in simulation-based education

Workshop at the INACSL Conference  Washington D.C., June 20 2017

IPE: How barriers become opportunities in theory and practice

Faculty Development Session  MSOE University, Milwaukee, WI, February 5 2018

Research Interests (2)

Fostering Early Interprofessional Collaboration Between Medical Students and Nursing Students

Investigating assumptions held by nursing and medical students on each other's discipline.

Faculty Development: Creating a Training Program for Simulation Educators

Investigating the impact of workshop to develop simulation educators

Selected Publications (11)

Formal training efforts to develop simulation educators: An integrative review.

Simulation in Healthcare

Paige, J., Graham, L., and Sittner, B.

2020 Summary Statement from source: Formal training for educators who use simulation-based education (SBE) is required by standards of best practice, simulation guidelines, regulatory, and accrediting bodies. Training efforts to establish educator competency for SBE are being offered. However, a systematic review of this body of literature has yet to be conducted. The purpose of this integrative review was to appraise formal training efforts of educators who use SBE. The aims were to summarize the training topics, describe the structure of training programs, and explore evaluation methods of educators. The New World Kirkpatrick Model guided the review. A PRISMA search approach yielded 2007 citations of which 38 met inclusion criteria. Analysis supports a formalized training process that uses a combination of didactic material, time for repetitive practice, and ongoing feedback with longitudinal and scaffolded delivery approaches. An identified gap in the literature is threshold levels for determining competency of educators. Recommendations for planning simulation training programs are provided.

view more

Hear ye, Hear ye! Learn all About the 2016 Edition of the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM

INACSL Conference 2017

Paige, J.B., Sittner, B., Thomson, W., Graham, L., Aebersold, M., Leighton, K.

2017 The International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation & Learning (INACSL) takes the lead in developing, revising, and publishing the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM used internationally and across disciplines to train healthcare providers. Considering internal and external review, evidence-based educational practices and research, the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: Simulation undergo a cyclical and ongoing review process. In 2016, the third iteration of Standards of Best Practice: Simulation was published. With the maturing of use of simulation as a pedagogical method, those in the simulation community are charged with the utilization of the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: Simulation for designing, conducting, and evaluating simulation-based experiences. In this presentation, members of the INACSL Standards Committee (2014-2016) will update the simulation community of the 2016 edition of the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: Simulation. Detailed are the updates and revisions made that reduce redundancies, clarify language, address gaps, and incorporate new knowledge. Evident by the frequent citation of the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: Simulation in the literature, it is important the simulation community be appraised of and incorporate the most current best practices as they update and advance their simulation practices.

view more

More work needed! Analysis of fuzzy concepts in simulation-based learning

Journal of Nursing Education

Paige, J.B.

2016 When attending conferences or while conducting simulations, how many times have educators heard comments such as, “Simulation is a safe learning environment,” “What happens in sim stays in sim,” or “Cue the student.” Each comment reflects an aspect or phase in simulation-based learning. That said, how educators interpret these statements varies. For example, when considering the concept of a safe learning environment, one could ask for whom is it safe—the student, the patient, or both? If one educator believes that “safe” pertains to preserving the student's psychological safety, what actions does he or she take while conducting the simulation or the approach used in the debriefing session? Would the educator's concern about not harming the student's psychological safety supersede probing about errors in judgment? Conversely, if an educator believes “safe” pertains to not harming a real person, would he or she allow the student to make the error and then address it in the debrief? How many educators have pondered whether to let students make potentially life-threatening decisions or stop the simulation to correct the error in process? Does the educator's interpretation of what comprises a safe learning environment influence the choice to stop or continue with the simulation?

view more

Q-sample construction: a critical step for a Q-methodological study

Western Journal of Nursing Research

Paige, J.B., Morin, K.H.

2016 Q-sample construction is a critical step in Q-methodological studies. Prior to conducting Q-studies, researchers start with a population of opinion statements (concourse) on a particular topic of interest from which a sample is drawn. These sampled statements are known as the Q-sample. Although literature exists on methodological processes to conduct Q-methodological studies, limited guidance exists on the practical steps to reduce the population of statements to a Q-sample. A case exemplar illustrates the steps to construct a Q-sample in preparation for a study that explored perspectives nurse educators and nursing students hold about simulation design. Experts in simulation and Q-methodology evaluated the Q-sample for readability, clarity, and for representativeness of opinions contained within the concourse. The Q-sample was piloted and feedback resulted in statement refinement. Researchers especially those undertaking Q-method studies for the first time may benefit from the practical considerations to construct a Q-sample offered in this article.

view more

INACSL standards of best practice for simulation: Past, present, and future

Nursing Education Perspectives

Sittner, B.J., Aebersold, M.L., Paige, J.B., Graham, L.L., Schram, A.P., Decker, S.I., Lioce, L.

2015 AIM To describe the historical evolution of the International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning's (INACSL) Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM. BACKGROUND The establishment of simulation standards began as a concerted effort by the INACSL Board of Directors in 2010 to provide best practices to design, conduct, and evaluate simulation activities in order to advance the science of simulation as a teaching methodology. METHOD A comprehensive review of the evolution of INACSL Standards of Best Practice: Simulation was conducted using journal publications, the INACSL website, INACSL member survey, and reports from members of the INACSL Standards Committee. RESULTS The initial seven standards, published in 2011, were reviewed and revised in 2013. Two new standards were published in 2015. The standards will continue to evolve as the science of simulation advances. CONCLUSION As the use of simulation-based experiences increases, the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: Simulation are foundational to standardizing language, behaviors, and curricular design for facilitators and learners.

view more

Diversity of nursing student views about simulation design: A Q-methodological study

Journal of Nursing Education

Paige, J.B., Morin, K.H.

2015 BACKGROUND: Education of future nurses benefits from well-designed simulation activities. Skillful teaching with simulation requires educators to be constantly aware of how students experience learning and perceive educators’ actions. Because revision of simulation activities considers feedback elicited from students, it is crucial to understand the perspective from which students base their response. METHOD: In a Q-methodological approach, 45 nursing students rank-ordered 60 opinion statements about simulation design into a distribution grid. RESULTS: Factor analysis revealed that nursing students hold five distinct and uniquely personal perspectives—Let Me Show You, Stand By Me, The Agony of Defeat, Let Me Think It Through, and I’m Engaging and So Should You. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that nurse educators need to reaffirm that students clearly understand the purpose of each simulation activity. Nurse educators should incorporate presimulation assignments to optimize learning and help allay anxiety. The five perspectives discovered in this study can serve as a tool to discern individual students’ learning needs.

view more

Making sense of methods and measurement: Q-methodology—part II—methodological procedures

Clinical Simulation in Nursing

Paige, J.B.

2015 This is the second column on Q-methodology (Q) with a focus on Q’s methodological procedures. As introduced in a prior column, Q combines quantitative and qualitative techniques (Newman & Ramlo, 2010) to reveal what Q-methodologist call ‘‘subjectivity’’. Subjectivity describes peoples’ points of view about a particular topic of interest. A person’s point of view reveals itself as one rank orders (Q-sorts) a number of items (opinions on the topic of interest). Through the use of factor analytic techniques, the researcher is then able to reveal how groups of people share similar to divergent points of view. A study that explored perspectives nurse educators hold about simulation design illustrates the Q-sort process as experienced by a participant. A simplified explanation illustrates how the researcher analyzed and interpreted the data (Q-sorts).

view more

Using Q-methodology to reveal nurse educators' perspectives about simulation design

Clinical Simulation in Nursing

Paige, J.B., Morin, K.H.

2015 Background Considering educators can hold varying beliefs toward teaching, it is to be expected a certain degree of subjectivity exists as educators make choices when designing and conducting simulation activities. The aim of this study was to discover nurse educators' perspectives (patterns of thought) about simulation design. Method In a Q-methodological approach, 44 nurse educators rank ordered 60 opinion statements about simulation design into a quasi-normal distribution grid. Results Factor analysis revealed nurse educators share an overriding Facilitate the Discovery perspective. Two secondary bipolar factors revealed educators hold opposing views about student role assignment, degree to provide student support, and when and if to stop a simulation. Conclusions Results suggest that ongoing and sustained educational development along with time for nurse educators to clarify their perspective about simulation design is essential. Further educational research on the extent to let students struggle during simulation activities and the emotional preparation students need before simulation activities is crucial. Awareness of perspectives (individual and shared) about simulation design enhances instructional delivery and develops educators' skill in simulation pedagogy.

view more

Making Sense of Methods and Measurement: Q-Methodology—Part I—Philosophical Background

Clinical Simulation in Nursing

Paige, J.B.

2014 Q-methodology (Q) is a research approach that provides investigators the ability to explore subjectivity. Subjectivity is the sum of behavioral activity that constitutes a person’s current point of view (Stephenson, 1953). Discovering what constitutes different points of view (individual and shared) provides insight into understanding human behavior. A number of disciplines, including nursing, have employed Q to study topics such as social attitudes, decision making, cultural values, public policy, and educational practices including simulation-based learning, to name a few (Akhtar-Danesh, Baxter, Valaitis, Stanyon, & Sproul, 2009; Killam, Montgomery, Luhanga, Adamic, & Carter, 2010). Yet, selection of Q as a research approach has seen greater use in research conducted outside the United States. At first read, people not as familiar with Q can find it difficult to understand let alone evaluate the quality of a Q-study.

view more

Simulation Fidelity and Cueing: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Clinical Simulation in Nursing

Paige, J.B., Morin, K.H.

2013 Even as simulation use in health care education has proliferated, there are terms used in simulation design that often lack clarity, in particular fidelity and cueing. To gain a better understanding of these terms, this article reports a systematic review of the literature for attributes and definitions of fidelity and cueing. Inclusion criteria included theoretical, educational, and empirical literature across disciplines that use simulation for educational or training purposes. Excluded w\ere publications with a nonhuman, noneducational, or primary or secondary school focus. Search strategies yielded 248 publications of which 13 met inclusion criteria. Results indicate fidelity is a multidimensional concept forming a matrix comprising physical, psychological, and conceptual dimensions. Cueing comprises two types, reality and conceptual cues, with mode of delivery enacted via equipment, environment, or patient and role characters. The article offers implications for simulation design considering the attributes of fidelity and cueing.

view more

Nurse faculty experiences in problem-based learning: an interpretive phenomenologic analysis

Nursing Education Perspectives

Paige, J.B., Smith, R.O.

2013 Aim. This study explored the nurse faculty experience of participating in a problem-based learning (PBL) faculty development program. Background. Utilizing PBL as a pedagogical method requires a paradigm shift in the way faculty think about teaching, learning, and the teacher-student relationship. Method. An interpretive phenomenological analysis approach was used to explore the faculty experience in a PBL development program. Results. Four themes emerged: change in perception of the teacher-student relationship, struggle in letting go, uncertainty, and valuing PBL as a developmental process. Conclusions. Epistemic doubt happens when action and intent toward the PBL teaching perspective do not match underlying beliefs. Findings from this study call for ongoing administrative support for education on PBL while faculty take time to uncover hidden epistemological beliefs.

view more