Megha Kumar heads our software and cloud services research at IDC Canada. She originally joined IDC in 2007 covering the Middle East, Africa, and Turkey region, based out of Dubai, U.A.E. In her previous role at IDC, she regularly provided insights on market dynamics, vendor strategies, and end-user trends across the Middle East, Africa, and Turkey for both global and regional ICT firms as well as public sector organizations.
As a research director, Megha is responsible for managing and delivering projects across technology areas such as cloud services, enterprise applications, software and digital transformation for the Canadian market.
In addition to research, Megha has aided vendors with go-to-market engagements to improve market awareness and provide end users with essential guidance on technology adoption. She regularly interacts with CIOs and IT decision makers regarding their technology preferences, priorities, and concerns.
Megha presents at various industry and vendor conferences. She is often quoted in the media, providing opinions on technologies and market dynamics. She holds a Bachelor’s degree with Honors in Marketing from York University, Canada.
Areas of Expertise (8)
Business Buyer Behaviour
Associated IDC Services (4)
- Canadian Software as a Service
- Canadian Cloud Platforms
- Semiannual Software Tracker - Canada Region
- Semiannual Public Cloud Services Tracker - Canada Region
York University: Bachelor, Marketing 2004
Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Sloan School of Management: Certificate, Artificial Intelligence: Implications for Business Strategy 2018
Media Appearances (11)
The sloppy 'digital stampede' that was 2020, and what it means for 2021 Author of the article:
During a separate webinar, IDC Canada’s head of cloud Megha Kumar suggested leaders target individual lines of business within the company for digital transformation to reduce the anxiety about the entire process which, eventually, will have to be company-wide. This can also reduce technical debt, she added.
Is the public cloud ready for mission-critical applications? IBM says yes
IT World Canada
A recent IDC survey shows that 85% of medium and large organizations in Canada are going ahead with digital transformation, despite the COVID-19 crisis. “Many Canadian organizations see cloud as strategic to achieve their transformation goals,” said Megha Kumar, Research Director, Software & Cloud with IDC Canada at a recent ITWC webinar. “And they clearly see the value of cloud for business continuity.” IDC is forecasting that the public cloud services market in Canada will grow at a compound annual growth rate of 13.4 per cent to reach $12.5 billion by 2024.
TELUS International Announces Launch of Work Anywhere
“There is no doubt that remote work capabilities have become essential in response to the global COVID-19 pandemic over the near-term; however, this shift in the way we engage with customers, partners and employees will remain to some extent over the longer-term, guiding brands’ behaviors for years to come,” said Megha Kumar, Research Director, Software & Cloud Solutions with IDC. “In order to successfully achieve consistent and sustainable benefits across the enterprise, brands will need a combination of the right technology and the ability to transition their culture from the workplace into their employees’ homes.”
Web conferencing platforms at risk of being lure for phishing emails: consultant
The Toronto Star
With the use of web-based video conferences proliferating during the COVID-19 crisis, cyber security experts warn they pose a threat as well as an opportunity in the age of telework. There’s an opportunity for providers to increase their market share, but Kumar says that won’t be measurable until the new users start paying for those free or almost-free services. “We really need to wait and see what will happen over the next few weeks or months — however long the situation goes on.”, says Megha Kumar
Even Canada's big banks are facing challenges in scaling up remote-work capabilities
According to Megha Kumar, the head of software and cloud services research at IDC Canada, the challenge with having so many individuals logging on at once is that most organizations do not have their servers scaled up to manage the number of gateway licenses needed to have hundreds or thousands of different virtual private networks (VPNs) connect at once. “If you overclog a network, servers might go down. You don’t want that. So it becomes a situation where businesses are now managing server capacity,” she said.
Big Tech is zeroing in on Canada as the next frontier in the cloud wars
Cloud companies are hiring hundreds of employees to win over governments, banks and even the oilsands. Those companies now see an opportunity in Canada in part because the country’s businesses have “reached a point where they no longer struggle with why they need to be on the cloud,” said Megha Kumar, a research director at IDC Canada. One reason for that, she added, was Big Tech firms setting up shop in Canada to give businesses here easier access to what she calls the “underlying infrastructure” for modern-day innovation.
Canada is the next front in Big Tech’s cloud wars
The Logic online
Arvind Krishna’s appointment last Thursday as the next CEO of IBM was a sign of the times. with why they need to be on the cloud,” said Megha Kumar, a research director at IDC Canada. One reason for that, she...
How the cloud will create nearly 32,000 jobs in the UAE
The National online
“Cloud will enable innovative projects that revolve around artificial intelligence (AI), enterprise mobility, Internet of Things (IoT), and blockchain,” said Megha Kumar, research director at researcher International Data Corporation (IDC). Cloud services will also create demand for new skill types and expertise in the market, said Ms Kumar adding that these will range from AI and blockchain architects and data scientists to AI systems trainers.
Microsoft and Amazon See Growth in Middle Eastern Cloud Services
Bloomberg News online
“The region is one of the fastest-growing public cloud services markets,” says Megha Kumar, an analyst for IDC Research Inc. in Dubai. “The potential is huge given the ambitions of the public sector and their drive for innovation.”
IBM Is Reinventing Itself, And Blockchain Is The Key
Forbes Middle East online
With national reform agendas underway in the U.A.E. and Saudi Arabia, there’s an opportunity to pitch new technologies that could make public services more efficient. “When it comes to AI and blockchain, [IBM] has been working extensively with the public sector in the Middle East,” says Megha Kumar, a research director covering the region for IDC.
Amazon bets on boom in Middle East as big tech rivals play catch-up
Amazon’s decision to set up their first center in Bahrain sidesteps Dubai, which has received attention as a promising global hub for start-ups and is where Alibaba’s cloud operations are based. But Megha Kumar, research director of software at IDC for the Middle East and Africa, said these tech giants can reach many businesses in the region once they set up cloud services in one of the Gulf countries.
Event Appearances (7)
Driving a Seamless Content Experience
IDC Fireside Chat: Content Cloud as a Critical Component of Virtual Work Zoom Webinar
Balancing Innovation & Resiliency in Canada
IDC Directions 2021 Canada Virtual Event
General Session Presentation and Panel Discussion: BLOCKCHAIN
ET Canada Exchange Quebec
Canadian SaaS Landscape
Navigating the SaaS Landscape in Canada Webcast
Strategies for an Era of Multiplied Innovation & Automation
IDC Middle East CIO Summit, 2019 Dubai
Enterprise ICT Outlook: Trends to Watch Out for in the Datacenter, Cloud, Outsourcing and Security Markets in 2019 & Beyond
IDC Directions 2019: MEA Dubai
The Evolving Security Landscape
Insights for the Progressive CISO Kuwait City
Canadian PaaS Adoption Plans, 2021IDC Canada
This IDC Survey examines the adoption of platform as a service (PaaS) among medium-sized and large organizations in Canada. It covers the use cases driving the adoption of PaaS in addition to the solutions and tools that these organizations are seeking in conjunction with PaaS. It also looks at the trend around the adoption of low-code/no-code solutions among Canadian organizations. This IDC Survey draws responses from 295 organizations as a part of IDC Canada's 2021 IT Advisory Panel n2. "The adoption of PaaS solutions will continue to accelerate as Canadian organizations seek agility around introducing new functionalities and innovations. There is a growing trend toward empowering lines-of-business users to introduce new solutions by giving them access to low-code/no-code tools."— Megha Kumar, research director, Software and Cloud, IDC Canada
Adoption of Cloud Services and the Need for Cloud Security Maturity in Canada, 2021IDC Canada
Megha Kumar, Yogesh Shivhare
This IDC Market Presentation covers the state of adoption of cloud services in Canada and how security is a major driver, benefit, and criterion for Canadian organizations. It also provides a look at the current state of cloud security in Canada, especially around the tools being deployed and activities being undertaken to secure the cloud.
Application Modernization Plans Among Canadian Organizations, 2021IDC Canada
Megha Kumar, Jim Westcott
This IDC Market Presentation covers the application modernization priorities of Canadian organizations alongside the business drivers and concerns and IT challenges. It also covers the modernization initiatives that are currently being undertaken by Canadian organizations and their plans for the next 18 months. The document draws on the results from IDC Canada's Business and IT Advisory Panel (BITAP) N4, with 296 Canadian organizations across different sizes and sectors. The survey was in field from September to October 2020.
Canadian SMB SaaS Adoption, 2021IDC Canada
This IDC Survey examines the adoption of software as a service (SaaS) among small and medium-sized businesses (SMB) in Canada. It covers the transition from on premises to cloud and impact of COVID-19 on adoption of SaaS. It covers criteria for selection of primary vendors and preferred channels of procurement major SaaS workloads. This survey draws responses from 203 SMBs surveyed as part of IDC Canada's 2020 IT and Business Advisory Panel n2. The overall survey covered 300 organizations. It covers responses from both lines-of-business and IT decision-making functions. "Canadian SMBs expect to progress in their adoption of SaaS over the next three years. This will also result in a shift of budgets from traditional hosted/outsourced IT to public and private cloud services. It will be critical for SaaS vendors to address concerns SMBs have experienced, especially around price and transparency around costs"— Megha Kumar, research director, Software and Cloud, IDC Canada.
Canadian Organizations' Priorities and Functional Department Insights, 2021IDC Canada
This IDC Market Presentation covers Canadian organizations' responses regarding their top business and technology priorities as well as buying criteria for technology purchases. It will also cover responses from different functional departments. It draws on the results from IDC's 2021 Worldwide C-Suite Survey, with 108 Canadian organizations across different sizes and sectors. The survey was in field from late November 2020 to mid-December 2020.
How Have the Cost Savings Experienced from Cloud Adoption Been Reallocated Within Canadian Organizations?IDC Canada
This IDC Survey Spotlight provides insights as to how Canadian organizations have reallocated the cost savings that they have experienced within their IT budgets with the adoption of cloud services. The data in this document is based on IDC Canada's IT Advisory Panel Survey, conducted in May 2020. The survey covered 294 IT decision makers from medium-sized and large Canadian businesses of all sectors and regions.
Adoption of Unified Communications and Collaboration, 2021IDC Canada
This IDC Survey examines the adoption of unified communication and collaboration (UC&C) solutions in Canada. It covers the features that are being used/planned to be used by organizations as well as the impact of COVID-19 on these features. It further explores the adoption of unified communication as a service (UCaaS) as well as its benefits, concerns around adoption, and barriers to adoption. This survey draws responses from 300 organizations surveyed as part of IDC Canada's 2020 IT Advisory Panel n4. It covers responses from IT decision-making functions within medium-sized (100–499) and large (500+) organizations. "There is a growing trend toward using cloud-based UC&C or UCaaS, driven by the need for scalability and flexibility as well as cost efficiencies. More importantly, one of the benefits of UCaaS is business continuity/disaster recovery, which has been critical over the past several months. It will be a major factor that will continue to drive UCaaS adoption in the country." — Megha Kumar, research director, Software and Cloud, IDC Canada.
Buyer Perspectives on SaaS Applications and Vendors in Canada, 2020IDC Canada
The IDC Market Presentation covers the primary SaaS vendors across human capital management, financial applications, customer relationship management, team collaborative applications, and conferencing applications in Canada. It provides a view by SMB segmentation as well. It covers the top attributes that organizations in Canada prioritize when selecting these five workloads as well as the issues they may have experienced with their primary vendors. It also provides the buyer perspective on the top attributes that organizations associate with their primary vendor by workload.
How Will Cloud Strategies Shift Due to COVID-19 in Canada?IDC Canada
This IDC Survey Spotlight provides insights as to how the cloud strategies have shifted due to the on-going COVID-19 pandemic. The data in this document is based on IDC Canada's Business and IT Advisory Panel Survey, conducted in September 2020. The survey covered 404 IT decision makers from Canadian businesses of all sizes, sectors, and regions.
What Features of Hybrid Cloud Are Critical for IT and Business Decision Makers in Canada? 2020 UpdateIDC Canada
This IDC Survey Spotlight provides a 2020 update as to the features that IT and lines-of-business (LOB) decision makers consider to be critical when it comes to hybrid cloud. The data in this document is based on IDC Canada's Business and IT Advisory Panel Survey conducted in June 2020. The survey covered 299 IT and LOB decision makers from Canadian businesses of all sizes, sectors, and regions.
Canadian End-User Views on PaaS and IaaS, 2020IDC Canada
This IDC Survey examines the adoption of platform as a service (PaaS) and infrastructure as a service (IaaS) in Canada. It covers the transition from on premises to cloud. It covers criteria for selection of potential cloud vendors, the technologies organizations are seeking via their cloud providers, and the criteria for organizations when deciding which applications to migrate to the cloud. This survey draws responses from 300 organizations surveyed as part of IDC Canada's 2020 Business and IT Advisory Panel Survey n2. It covers responses from both lines-of-business and IT decision-making functions. It also draws responses from 192 Canadian organizations surveyed as a part of IDC's 2020 Worldwide Industry CloudPath Survey. This survey covered IT decision makers. "Canadian organizations expect to allocate a greater proportion of their IT budgets towards cloud services over the next two years. The adoption of PaaS and IaaS continues to accelerate, with many workloads augmenting existing on-premises solutions." — Megha Kumar, research director, Software and Cloud Services, IDC Canada.
SaaS Adoption in Canada, 2020IDC Canada
This IDC Survey examines the adoption of software as a service (SaaS) in Canada. It covers the transition from on premises to cloud and the impact of COVID-19 on adoption of SaaS. It covers criteria for selection of primary vendors, preferred channels of procurement, and pricing preferences across major SaaS workloads. This Survey draws responses from 300 organizations surveyed as part of IDC Canada's IT and Business Advisory Panel n2, 2020. It covers responses from both lines-of-business and IT decision-making functions. "Adoption of SaaS continues to accelerate in Canada, across major organizational workloads. Organizations are seeking SaaS vendors that ensure superior user experience and that allow for ease of integration and implementation, security, and customer service. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic , organizations within sectors such as financial services, infrastructure services, and public sector plan ahead to invest more in cloud services in the next 12 months. "— Megha Kumar, research director, Software and Cloud Services, IDC Canada.
The Future of Digital Innovation Drives Business Resiliency in CanadaIDC Canada Blog
Learn how digital innovation can help your company on the road to recovery with IDC Canada’s Megha Kumar
Future of Work — The Next Normal in CanadaIDC Canada
Evan Hardie, Jean Philippe Bouchard, Megha Kumar
This IDC Market Presentation focuses on how Canadian organizations are preparing to "return to work," amid a global health crisis. Will the "hybrid" operating model become the working model of the future? This Market Presentation provides insights into how Canadian organizations handled the outbreak, how technologies were deployed, what they focused on when reopening their offices, what percentage of employees will work remotely ongoing, and what the next normal looks like. COVID-19 has accelerated digital transformation adoption in Canada. Projects and new technology implementation that were possibly many years away, happened in a few short months. Work Culture (talent acquisition, development, and retention) was top of mind in 2019, while in June 2020, Work Space (connectivity, digital assistance, content and collaboration, and smart facilities) became the leading Future of Work dimension in Canada.
Impact of COVID-19: Collaboration Solutions in CanadaIDC Canada
This IDC Market Presentation discusses the impact of COVID-19 on the Canadian collaboration solutions market. It provides results from various IDC's surveys covering the impact of COVID-19 on technology spend in 2020 and highlights how collaboration is critical for remote work. It also provides essential guidance for technology buyers and suppliers as organizations in Canada edge closer to recovery.
Impact of COVID-19: Canadian Software as a Service MarketIDC Canada
This IDC Market Presentation discusses the impact of COVID-19 on the Canadian software-as-a-service market. It provides results from IDC's April 2020 COVID-19 Impact on IT Spending Survey — Wave 2 for Canada, the trends impacting software uptake in 2020, a snapshot on the impact of COVID-19 across major SaaS applications markets, and essential guidance for technology buyers and suppliers.
COVID-19 Business Impact: Hierarchy of Needs — Moving from Pandemic Risk Management to Organizational AgilityIDC Canada
Tony Olvet, Megha Kumar
This IDC Perspective outlines the various stages of the "COVID-19 Business Impact: Hierarchy of Needs" framework. It provides examples of technologies that organizations can utilize and key issues that they need to address as they sustain themselves during this crisis. This framework can be used at an organizational level or a departmental level and can help guide IT suppliers as they serve customers. "From remote work and employee engagement tools to security and network services, technology suppliers play a pivotal role in helping organizations persevere through the COVID-19 crisis. It is critical that they understand and address the needs of customers on the continuum from pandemic risk management to enabling organizational agility. Demonstrating empathy, being responsive, and maintaining transparency are paramount during this crisis," says Tony Olvet, group vice president of Research at IDC Canada.
Jump-Starting Collaboration in the COVID-19 EraIDC
Wayne Kurtzman, Megha Kumar
This IDC Perspective reviews the huge role that collaborative applications play in business continuity in the COVID-19 era — or any event that requires people to work and engage remotely. The COVID-19 pandemic is forcing companies of every size to increase remote work. Unlike other technology solutions, collaborative applications require a mix of technology, security, integration, and culture to drive consistent and significant benefits across the enterprise. "Business continuity requires empowering people to do work and allowing people to be people — to move meetings, shared assets, and even watercooler conversations into collaborative applications and to connect colleagues, partners, and customers," according to Wayne Kurtzman, IDC research director of Social and Collaboration Solutions. "Adding an invisible layer of security and compliance to a highly integrated online work environment drives significant productivity and time-savings, regardless of where the work gets done."
Zoho Analyst Day 2020 — The Canadian TakeawaysIDC Canada
Megha Kumar, Vijay Kumar
This IDC Market Note provides IDC analysts' observations from the Zoho Analyst Day held January 28–30, 2020, in Austin, Texas. The aim of the event was to reflect on Zoho's growth, highlight the company's future road map, and showcase some of its customer success stories.
Future of Work: Collaboration Technologies in CanadaIDC Canada
This IDC Perspective provides insights into how organizations in Canada are engaging in workplace transformation. It looks at the various technology investments being undertaken to improve employee productivity and foster collaboration. "A truly collaborative environment is the outcome of shifts in the existing work culture and providing employees access to the right technologies. Empowering employees with decision making and the right technologies keeps them engaged and motivated. There is a growing trend toward cloud-based collaborative technologies. This gives organizations flexibility to scale and provision access to different types of functionalities. As with other cloud solutions, organizations need to address security within the collaboration solutions as well," says Megha Kumar, research director, Software and Cloud.
Adoption of Unified Communications and Collaboration Solutions in Canada, 2020IDC Canada
This IDC Survey examines the current state of adoption of unified communications and collaboration (UC&C) solutions in Canada. This survey draws responses from 394 organizations surveyed as part of IDC Canada's 2019 IT and Business Advisory Panel n3. It covers responses from both lines-of-business and IT decision-making functions. "Organizations in Canada continue to invest in UC&C solutions to enable productivity and collaboration. There is a demand for cloud-based unified communication and collaboration solutions in a bid to gain access to the latest technology, better functionalities, and the flexibility to scale as and when needed." — Megha Kumar, research director, Software and Cloud, IDC Canada
Buyer Perspectives on SaaS Applications and Vendors in Canada, 2019IDC Canada
This IDC Survey document examines buyer perceptions of various SaaS offerings in Canada. This Survey draws responses from 344 organizations surveyed as part of IDC Canada's IT and Business Advisory Panel n2, 2019. It covers responses from both lines-of-business and IT decision-making functions. "As organizations in Canada adopt public cloud services, they expect it to support cost and operational efficiencies within IT while streamlining and standardizing processes for lines-of-business users. Both lines of business and IT decision makers prioritize security, pricing, ease of use, and performance when looking to purchase SaaS solutions." — Megha Kumar, research director, Software and Cloud Services, IDC Canada
SaaS Adoption in Canada, 2019IDC Canada
This IDC Survey document examines the current state of adoption of software-as-a-service (SaaS) workloads in Canada. This Survey draws responses from 344 organizations surveyed as part of IDC's Canadian IT and Business Advisory Panel n2, 2019. It covers responses from both lines-of-business and IT decision-making functions. "As organizations in Canada are increasingly leaning toward SaaS workloads to augment existing solutions and to support the increased usage of these workloads, both lines of business and IT decision makers prioritize security, pricing, ease of use, and performance when looking to purchase SaaS solutions. Superior user experience and integration are critical for increased adoption of SaaS within organizations." — Megha Kumar, research director, Software and Cloud Services, IDC Canada.
Cisco Canada Analyst Day 2019: Key TakeawaysIDC Canada
Jason Bremner, Lars Goransson, Megha Kumar, Nigel Wallis
This IDC Market Note provides IDC analyst impressions of Cisco Canada's Analyst Day 2019 held in Toronto, Canada, on October 3, 2019. The main theme of the event was innovation, and the event was hosted at Cisco's Toronto Co-Innovation Centre. Cisco Canada's executive leadership outlined how recent acquisitions and product launches fit into its local strategy. They further outlined changes to the go-to-market strategy.
Market Analysis Perspective: Canadian Cloud Services, 2019IDC Canada
Megha Kumar, Jason Bremner
This IDC Market Analysis Perspective (MAP) presents IDC's view of the Canadian public cloud services markets, with insights into adoption, trends impacting uptake and five-year forecasts of public cloud services, and provides high-level guidance to vendors in the space. The public cloud services market in Canada continue to evolve as organizations increasingly lean toward cloud services to augment existing workloads. Customers need to contend with hybrid and multicloud environments as they adopt the right cloud by workload. This IDC MAP draws from the Worldwide Public Cloud Services Tracker, 2H18, IDC's Canadian IT and Business Advisory Panel, and other sources to provide a comprehensive view of the public cloud services market in Canada.
OpenText Enterprise World 2019 — Preparing for an Automated Cloud Services FutureIDC
David Schubmehl, Melissa Webster, Stewart Bond, Simon Ellis, Megha Kumar, Andrew Smith, Aly Pinder, Holly Muscolino, Ryan O’Leary, Adelaide O'Brien, Andrea Minonne, Marci Maddox
This IDC Market Perspective examines and provides an overview of the OpenText Enterprise World conference, held in Toronto in July 2019, where OpenText announced several key product introductions and partnerships, including a major partnership announcement with Google. According to Dave Schubmehl, research director for AI Software Platforms at IDC, "OpenText is positioning itself for a cloud-based, autonomous future with a raft of new product introductions and versions and partnerships with companies like Google. The conference was a chance for OpenText to demonstrate its ongoing commitment to its customers and their future."
Which Features Within Hybrid Cloud Are Critical to IT and Business Decision Makers in Canada?IDC Canada
This IDC Survey Spotlight highlights the features that IT and lines of business (LOB) decision makers consider to be critical when it comes to hybrid cloud. The data in this document is based on IDC Canada's Business and IT Advisory Panel Survey conducted in May and June 2019. The survey covered 344 IT and LOB decision makers from Canadian businesses of all sizes, sectors, and regions.
The Middle East CIO's 2019 Digital Agenda: State of Digital TransformationIDC
May 2019 The 2019 IDC Middle East CIO Summit showcased the results of the annual IDC CIO Summit Survey on CIO priorities and CIOs' views on digital transformation adoption and the associated challenges. The survey was conducted prior to the February 27–28 summit, held in Dubai. The slides present the views of CIOs from various vertical markets in the Middle East. "The adoption of digital transformation strategies has progressed in the past two years in the Middle East. Transformation is pursued to achieve cost and process efficiencies, but many organizations are still trying to define their digital transformation mission. They are engaging with internal focus groups and enabling business units to pursue their own innovations. To be truly successful, organizations will need to embed their digital transformation strategy within every department." — Research Director Megha Kumar, IDC Middle East, Turkey, and Africa
The Middle East CIO's Digital Agenda: CIO Priorities and ChallengesIDC
May 2019 The 2019 edition of the Middle East CIO Summit showcased the results of the annual IDC CIO Summit survey that covers CIO priorities and their views of digital transformation adoption and associated challenges. The survey was run prior to the Middle East CIO Summit 2019, which took place in Dubai on February 27 and 28. The following slides present the views of CIOs from various vertical markets in the Middle East. "CIOs in the Middle East are being tasked to do more with less, including supporting innovation while sustaining operational efficiencies. When it comes to technology priorities, security remains top of mind, as it helps sustain the performance and availability of systems in a hypercompetitive era." — Research Director Megha Kumar, IDC Middle East, Turkey, and Africa
Enterprise IT Outlook: Trends to Watch in the Datacenter, Cloud, Outsourcing, and Security Markets in 2019 and BeyondIDC
Megha Kumar, Swapna Subramani
March 2019 This IDC Market Presentation was delivered in the United Arab Emirates on January 23, 2019. It discusses key trends shaping the datacenter, cloud, security, and outsourcing markets in the Middle East, Turkey, and Africa (META). Organizations in the region are entering the era of multiplied innovation, actively using innovation accelerators. The presentation highlights ways in which META organizations will tackle cost and complexity during their transformational phases.