Patricia G. Martinez is an associate professor of management in the College of Business Administration at Loyola Marymount University. Her areas of expertise include topics in organizational behavior and human resource management. Most recently, Dr. Martinez has focused on how employees rely upon human resource practices as signals of the working conditions which employers either implicitly or explicitly promise. Additionally, in the area of employee selection, Dr. Martinez examines whether hiring managers view overqualification as a liability or an asset when making selection decisions.
University of California, Irvine: Ph.D., Management - Organizational Behavior 2002
California State Polytechnic University at Pomona: B.S., Management, Information Systems 1991
Areas of Expertise (5)
Industry Expertise (3)
- Management Research
- Academy of Management
- Western Academy of Management
- Iberoamerican Academy of Management
- National Society of Hispanic MBAs
- Management Faculty of Color Association (MFCA)
- The PhD Project
Gómez, C.B. & Martínez, P.G.
Discussions about leading the twenty-first century workforce must include Hispanics, the largest ethnic group which will account for 80 percent of the U.S. labor force growth in the next four decades. In today’s multicultural context, leading Hispanic employees requires knowledge of cultural values and how these are related to social identity and acculturation. Within this context we review research on how Hispanic employees may perceive leadership, organizational justice, teams, and the effect of job factors on motivation. Additionally, we discuss how culturally embedded leadership favors a relational perspective. Paternalistic leadership emphasizes such relational leadership as does the use of interactional justice. Furthermore, differences in attribution styles need to be noted so as to minimize conflict between managers and Hispanic employees. Research also suggests that in teams, Hispanics will emphasize the importance of team maintenance behaviors as well as potentially providing special treatment to in-group members. Finally, extrinsic job factors such as colleagues, benefits, company reputation and managers, will be related to motivation. Nevertheless, all of these factors need to be taken in the context of employees’ levels of acculturation and identification with Hispanic ethnicity and values. As employees are more acculturated and have weaker ethnic identification, Hispanics will display cultural values, job characteristic and leadership preferences which are more similar to U.S. majority members. We conclude with a discussion of several managerial implications.
Despite the surge in research on the psychological contract over the past two decades, there has been little integrative research that has examined psychological contracts in conjunction with legal contracts.
The purpose of this paper is to examine how employers define overqualification and mismatched qualification and whether they are willing to hire applicants whose educational and work experience credentials do not match job requirements.
We present a conceptual model for conducting research on how Human Resource and hiring managers form impressions of overqualified individuals and how these impressions affect their treatment of overqualified individuals during selection decisions.
This study aims to examine how the amount and type of flexibility in work schedule (flextime) and work location (telecommuting) may be related to receiving fewer training and development opportunities.
We integrate the concept of signaling theory to propose that organizations create psychological and legal contracts through their human resource management practices (HRM).
This study examines a unique contingent employment relationship—that between tour guides and tour operators in Ecuador.
We examine the idea that mental models shared among paid and volunteer leaders are associated with improved financial performance in nonprofit organizations. Our empirical analysis of thirty-seven churches yields evidence that organizations are more effective if paid and volunteer leaders have a shared task mental model—that is, if they report similar conceptualizations of organizational goals and decision-making processes. These findings suggest that the extent of leaders' agreement on organizational goals and the processes of how decisions are made matter for organizational performance. We argue that it is as important to ensure that everyone is on the same page with regard to goals and how decisions are made as it is to have the “right” goals or right decision processes in place. Implications for practice and future research on shared mental models are discussed.
We conducted a study of the explanatory value of demo- graphic predictors for levels of employment law knowledge within the context of the diverse U.S. Hispanic population. Although research suggests that many individuals in the United States do not have an accurate knowledge of employment laws that affect their everyday work environment, these studies generally fail to examine what factors may account for individuals’ level of knowledge of employment law.
Despite its persistence as a form of leadership, paternalism has received limited attention within organizational studies. In order to develop a construct definition of paternalism in a contemporary organizational context for this study, a literature review of paternalism is synthesized with qualitative field data collected in Mexican organizations and U.S. organizations that are owned and operated by Mexican immigrants. This analysis is conducted within a framework of leadership, and it suggests that paternalism combines paternalists’ benevolent acts with their subtle control over subordinates’ flexibility in meeting employment terms. Leaders express benevolence through their supportiveness and by providing for employees’ welfare both within the organization and their personal needs outside of the organization. Furthermore, both paternalistic leaders and subordinates frame their relationships in terms of social exchange, offering new insights into the dynamics within these exchange relationships.