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Yongsun Paik, Ph.D. - Loyola Marymount University. Los Angeles, CA, US

Yongsun Paik, Ph.D.

Professor of Management, College of Business Administration | Loyola Marymount University


Director, Center for International Business Education and Center for Asian Business



Yongsun Paik, Ph.D. Publication Yongsun Paik, Ph.D. Publication Yongsun Paik, Ph.D. Publication






You can contact Yongsun Paik at Yongsun.Paik@lmu.edu.

Yongsun Paik is a professor of international business and management at Loyola Marymount University and serves as director of the Center for Asian Business and director of the Center for International Business Education (CIBE). Yongsun's areas of interest include international human resources management, business ethics, cross-border M&As and joint ventures, and East Asian business management. Prior to joining the LMU faculty in 1991, Paik taught at the University of Washington, Seattle and worked as a country economist at the Export-Import Bank of Korea. He has also served as a visiting professor at Universidad Loyola, Andalusia in Spain, Ton Duc Thang University in Vietnam, Yonsei and Sogang University in Korea and at Thunderbird’s American Graduate School of International Management. Yongsun is an editorial board member for The Journal of World Business and The Thunderbird International Business Review, and former president of the Association of Korean Management Scholars. He has published three books and over 60 articles in major international business and management journals. Yongsun is a highly decorated academic where some of his honors include the Fulbright Senior Specialist Program Award, Korea Foundation Fellowship Award, Carnegie Bosch Institute Research Grant Award, Best Paper Award from the Academy of Management, Best Paper Award from the US Association for Small Business Entrepreneurship National Conference. He is also the recipient of LMU Faculty Award for Excellence in Scholarship and Creative Works and the Most Outstanding Faculty Person Award from Delta Sigma Pi.

Education (3)

University of Washington, Seattle: Ph.D., International Business 1991

University of Texas at Austin: M.A., Latin America Studies 1986

Yonsei University, Korea: B.A., Economics 1978


Areas of Expertise (6)

Regional Economic Integration

Global Trade

International Joint Ventures

International Human Resource Management

Business Ethics

Cross-cultural Negotiations

Event Appearances (1)

Conversations with Global Business Leaders: Global Talent Management

International Business Webinar Series hosted by GSU-CIBER  Virtual


Articles (8)

Turning a liability into an asset of foreignness: Managing informal networks in Korea

Business Horizons


Although foreignness can bring both benefits and costs, much of the literature has focused on the liability of foreignness (LOF) while relatively little attention has been paid to the positive side. Despite the presence of LOFs, foreign companies may accrue some unique advantages from their foreign status, which are referred to as assets of foreignness (AOFs). Drawing upon social capital theory and institutional theory, this paper examines the issue of LOFs versus AOFs in the context of the informal networks in Korea and explores how foreign companies can manage their weaknesses in host country-specific informal networks to create value from their foreignness.

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The impact of sub-national institutions on SMEs’ diversification into new businesses: Evidence from China

Entrepreneurship and Regional Development


This study explores how sub-national institutions affect the diversification of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) into new businesses. Using a sample of 3240 SMEs in China, we found that the dominance of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and the development of market systems in a province were related to local SMEs’ diversification. Specifically, in provinces dominated by SOEs, SMEs were less likely to diversify into new businesses. The development of market systems tended to reduce the odds of diversification for SMEs that primarily served local markets, and lower the likelihood of unrelated diversification. As a rare attempt to examine the impact of sub-national institutions on SMEs’ diversification, this study contributes to the research on diversification, institutions, and SME management.

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Convergence in International Business Ethics? A Comparative Study of Ethical Philosophies, Thinking Style, and Ethical Decision-making between US and Korean Managers

Journal of Business Ethics


This study investigates the relationship among ethical philosophy, thinking style, and managerial ethical decision-making. Based on the premise that business ethics is a function of culture and time, we attempt to explore two important questions as to whether the national differences in managerial ethical philosophies remain over time and whether the relationship between thinking style and ethical decision-making is consistent across different national contexts.

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Does Gender Matter in the Export Performance of New Ventures? Mediation Effects of Firm-specific and Country-specific Advantages

Journal of International Management


Based on a sample of 4240 Korean firms, this study explores the relationship between owner gender and export performance of international new ventures (INVs) by investigating four mediating mechanisms: venture capital financing, upstream firm-specific advantages, downstream firm-specific advantages, and country-specific advantages. Our empirical findings are threefold: (1) female-owned ventures are disadvantageous in obtaining access to venture capital, but venture capital financing is not positively associated with their export performance; (2) male-owned ventures achieve better export performance through superior innovation and marketing capabilities (i.e., mediation effects) than their female-owned counterparts; (3) while gender is not associated with the home-region destination of exports, the country destination of exports within the Asia-Pacific region positively affects INVs' export performance.

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Impact of Nationality Composition in Foreign Subsidiary on Its Performance: A Case of Korean Companies

International Journal of Human Resource Management


This study explores how the nationality compositions of management teams and employee groups in foreign subsidiaries can affect subsidiary performance. By analyzing firm-level data on 401 South Korean subsidiaries across 35 countries in the period between 2005 and 2007, we found that balanced compositions in both subsidiary management teams (SMTs) and subsidiary employee groups (SEGs) were positively associated with subsidiary performance. The results suggest that the benefits of balanced composition are higher for both innovative and coordinative tasks conducted by management teams and for simple computational tasks conducted by employee groups. The effect of the SMT and SEG compositions on subsidiary performance, however, may depend on the host country's institutional conditions. These findings have practical implications for multinational staffing strategies in order to ensure high performance in subsidiaries and for host country policies used to attract high quality foreign direct investments.

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Institutional distance, host country and international business experience, and the use of parent country nationals

Human Resource Management Journal


This study examines how the institutional distance between a host country and a home country influences foreign subsidiary staffing, and how overseas business experience moderates the effect of institutional distance. Hypotheses regarding the effect of institutional distance on foreign subsidiary staffing are empirically tested using a sample of 2,980 foreign subsidiaries of Japanese firms. This study shows that although the ratio of parent country nationals to subsidiary employees decreases when firms face greater institutional distance, the absolute number of parent country nationals assigned to the subsidiary increases. This study also shows that firms with more overseas business experience replace host country nationals with parent country nationals when there is greater institutional distance.

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Control in IJVs: Evidence from China

Journal of International Business Studies


In international joint ventures (IJVs), partner firms exert three types of management control: output, process, and social. Since management control critically influences IJV success, it is essential to understand what factors drive the development of the control system. Prior studies have focused mainly on IJVs’ internal conditions, and have largely neglected external institutional influences on IJV control. In this study we explore how host-country policies affect MNE partners’ control over their IJVs. Using a sample of IJVs in China, we find that MNE partners tend to exercise less output and process control when minority equity restriction is present, greater process control when they receive government incentives, and less social control when they are required to partner with state-owned enterprises. In contrast, the results of a post hoc analysis show that local partners’ control activities are not significantly influenced by these policies. Our findings provide new insights into IJV management by demonstrating the impacts of regulatory institutions on partners’ control activities.

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Expatriate Managers and MNC’s Ability to Control International Subsidiaries: The Case of Japanese MNCs

Journal of World Business


Building upon the notion of behavioral means of control, this paper contends that the level of cultural knowledge of expatriates plays a critical role in determining the effectiveness of expatriates as a means of control over international subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs). An empirical investigation with a sample of Japanese MNCs indicates that while expatriate personnel with adequate cultural knowledge of the host country contribute to the MNC’s control ability, those without cultural knowledge do not.

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