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Dr Raj Badhan - Aston University. Birmingham, , GB

Dr Raj Badhan

Lecturer in Pharmacokinetics | Aston University


Dr Badhan's interest is in applying clinical pharmacokinetics to challenging pre-clinical scenarios and clinical patient groups scenarios.







CaseStudy, Modified Release Systems-Matrix (School of Life & Health Sciences, Aston University) 2011 Case Study, Enteral Dosage Forms (School of Life & Health Sciences, Aston University) 2011 BPNG Webinar 28th Sept 2022




Dr Raj Badhan joined Aston University in June 2010 as Lecturer in Pharmacokinetics following over 3 years of extensive pharmacokinetics training with the world-renowned Centre for Applied Pharmacokinetics Research as a post-doctorate research associate, within the School of Pharmacy at the University of Manchester.

Raj has a broad background and interest in applying the principles of clinical pharmacokinetics to challenging pre-clinical and clinical scenarios in the context of medicines optimisation. As a pharmacokineticist and practicing pharmacist, he has a singular vision of developing tools and approaches which provide clear end-user/clinical benefits. This approach has driven successes in developing research tools to predict oral drug absorption and central nervous system drug biodistribution in addition to medicines optimisation for a range of disease conditions (e.g. mental health, tropical diseases, cardiovascular disease, drug abuse) and patient groups (paediatrics, geriatrics and pregnancy).

Areas of Expertise (8)


Population Pharmacokinetics


Mental Health



Medicines Optimisation

Opioid Abuse

Education (2)

University of Manchester: PhD, Pharmacology, Molecular Biology and Pharmacokinetics 2005

University of Manchester: MPharm, Pharmacy 2001

Affiliations (4)

  • Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain
  • International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics
  • Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences Great Britain (APSGB)
  • United Kindgom and Ireland Controlled Release Society (UKICRS)

Media Appearances (1)

Improving the use of methadone for drug users with tuberculosis to prevent withdrawal

Medical Xpress  online


Dr. Raj K. Singh Badhan, Lecturer in Pharmacokinetics, Aston University said: "We found that rifampicin significantly alters the level of methadone in the blood and necessitates dose adjustments, with daily doses of almost double those commonly used in clinical practice required for optimal levels of methadone in the blood.

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Articles (10)

The Application of Virtual Therapeutic Drug Monitoring to Assess the Pharmacokinetics of Imatinib in a Chinese Cancer Population Group

Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

2022 This study utilised a previously validated a Chinese cancer population and assessed the impact of imatinib virtual-TDM in Chinese and Caucasian cancer populations across a dosing range from 200-800 mg daily.

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Precision dosing of methadone during pregnancy: A pharmacokinetics virtual clinical trials study

Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment

2021 This study applied a pharmacokinetic modeling approach to examine gestational changes in R- and S-methadone concentrations in maternal plasma and fetal (cord) blood. This study did so to derive a theoretical optimal dosing regimen during pregnancy, and to identify the impact of Cytochromes P450 (CYP) 2B6 and 2C19 polymorphisms on methadone maternal and fetal pharmacokinetics.

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The Pharmacokinetics of Gefitinib in a Chinese Cancer Population Group: A Virtual Clinical Trials Population Study

Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

2021 Gefitinib, a selective inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase, is used to treat non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lung cancer rates are high in China and are expected to increase over the next decade. CYP 2D6 intermediate metaboliser (IM) phenotypes are more prevalent in the Chinese population compared to Caucasians; the increased risk of drug-drug interactions (DDI) with chemotherapy polypharmacy may lead to different clinical pharmacokinetics outcomes for Chinese patients.

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The application of precision dosing in the use of sertraline throughout pregnancy for poor and ultrarapid metabolizer CYP 2C19 subjects: A virtual clinical trial pharmacokinetics study

Bioinformatics and Drug Discovery

2021 Sertraline is known to undergo changes in pharmacokinetics during pregnancy. CYP 2C19 has been implicated in the interindividual variation in clinical effect associated with sertraline activity. However, knowledge of suitable dose titrations during pregnancy and within CYP 2C19 phenotypes is lacking. A pharmacokinetic modeling virtual clinical trials approach was implemented to: (i) assess gestational changes in sertraline trough plasma concentrations for CYP 2C19 phenotypes, and (ii) identify appropriate dose titration strategies to stabilize sertraline levels within a defined therapeutic range throughout gestation.

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Drug dosing during pregnancy—opportunities for physiologically based pharmacokinetic models

Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

2020 Drugs can have harmful effects on the embryo or the fetus at any point during pregnancy. Not all the damaging effects of intrauterine exposure to drugs are obvious at birth, some may only manifest later in life. Thus, drugs should be prescribed in pregnancy only if the expected benefit to the mother is thought to be greater than the risk to the fetus. Dosing of drugs during pregnancy is often empirically determined and based upon evidence from studies of non-pregnant subjects, which may lead to suboptimal dosing, particularly during the third trimester.

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Quetiapine dose optimisation during gestation: a pharmacokinetic modelling study

Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

2020 The second‐generation antipsychotic quetiapine has been demonstrated to undergo gestation‐related changes in pharmacokinetics. This study applied pharmacokinetic modelling principles to investigate the mechanism of these changes and to propose new dosing strategies to counteract these changes.

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Precision dosing‐based optimisation of paroxetine during pregnancy for poor and ultrarapid CYP2D6 metabolisers: a virtual clinical trial pharmacokinetics study

Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

2020 Paroxetine has been demonstrated to undergo gestation‐related reductions in plasma concentrations, to an extent which is dictated by the polymorphic state of CYP 2D6. However, knowledge of appropriate dose titrations is lacking.

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Formulation and Bioequivalence Testing of Fixed-Dose Combination Orally Disintegrating Tablets for the Treatment of Tuberculosis in the Paediatric Population

Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

2020 Tuberculosis (TB) is believed to affect around 10 million people worldwide. Treatment for TB includes isoniazid and rifampicin, with fixed-dose combination (FDC) recommended for improved patient compliance. Similarly, orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are an increasingly popular dosage form that aid compliance since they do not require swallowing. In this study ODTs of isoniazid and rifampicin, either as discrete or FDC doses, were formulated and bioequivalence between single and combination doses compared using in vitro and in silico approaches. Dissolution profiles were compared using FDA advised difference (f1) and similarity (f2) testing in biorelevant media.

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A dynamic perfusion based blood-brain barrier model for cytotoxicity testing and drug permeation

Scientific Reports

2020 The blood-brain barrier (BBB) serves to protect and regulate the CNS microenvironment. The development of an in-vitro mimic of the BBB requires recapitulating the correct phenotype of the in-vivo BBB, particularly for drug permeation studies. However the majority of widely used BBB models demonstrate low transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and poor BBB phenotype.

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Intracellular uptake of EGCG-loaded deformable controlled release liposomes for skin cancer

Journal of Liposome Research

2019 Caucasian population groups have a higher propensity to develop skin cancer, and associated clinical interventions often present substantial financial burden on healthcare services. Conventional treatments are often not suitable for all patient groups as a result of poor efficacy and toxicity profiles. The primary objective of this study was to develop a deformable liposomal formulation, the properties of which being dictated by the surfactant Tween 20, for the dermal cellular delivery of epigallocatechin gallatein (EGCG), a compound possessing antineoplastic properties.

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