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Erika V. Hall - Emory University, Goizueta Business School. Atlanta, GA, US

Erika V. Hall

Associate Professor of Organization & Management; Faculty Advisor, Business & Society Institute | Emory University, Goizueta Business School


Hall's research focuses on the influence of race, gender, and class-based stereotypes and implicit biases on workplace interactions.





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The history behind racial stereotyping | Erika Hall | TEDxColumbiaUniversity


Racial Bias is Everywhere



Erika V. Hall is an Associate Professor of Organization and Management at the Goizueta Business School at Emory University. As a trained social psychologist, her research explores the powerful impact of stereotypes and the hidden content within them.

Hall earned a PhD in Management & Organizations from the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. Professor Hall's work has appeared in academic journals such as Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Psychological Science, and American Psychologist, and media outlets such as The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Atlantic, and NPR. In 2016, she was honored as one of the “The World’s Best 40 Under 40 Business Professors” in Poets & Quants. Prior to graduate school, Hall was a Research Associate at Harvard Business School.

Education (2)

Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University: PhD, Management & Organizations 2014

Robert H. Smith School of Business, University of Maryland: BS, Finance 2007

Areas of Expertise (4)


Implicit Bias

Race and Gender

Social Psychology

Publications (14)

Measuring Racial Discrimination Remotely: A Contemporary Review of Unobtrusive Measures

Perspectives on Psychological Science

2022 Social-science researchers have increasingly moved from conducting their studies in a face-to-face format to an online format. Although new and innovative remote platforms afford researchers generalizability and scale, many of these platforms also tend to solicit socially desirable responses.

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What’s in a Name? The Hidden Historical Ideologies Embedded in the Black and African American Racial Labels

Psychological Science

2021 History can inconspicuously repeat itself through words and language. We explored the association between the “Black” and “African American” racial labels and the ideologies of the historical movements within which they gained prominence (Civil Rights and Black Power, respectively).

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MOSAIC: A model of stereotyping through associated and intersectional categories

Academy of Management Review

2019 Despite increased awareness of a wide range of demographics, existing theory fails to adequately explain how the stereotypes associated with multiple demographic categories (e.g., Black, female, gay, Muslim) combine to influence evaluations of employees. We present MOSAIC—a model of stereotyping through associated and intersectional categories—to explain how stereotypes from various demographic categories influence the expectations for, and visibility of, employees.

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Composition and compensation: The moderating effect of individual and team performance on the relationship between Black team member representation and salary

Journal of Applied Psychology

2019 Despite considerable focus on how the demographic composition of a workplace (e.g., the representation of minorities, women) may adversely affect the salaries of all individuals within that workplace, few researchers have investigated the factors that may impede this deleterious effect.

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A Review of Compensatory Strategies to Mitigate Bias

Personnel Assessment and Decisions

2019 Experiences of bias and discrimination remain pernicious obstacles for many individuals. Both micro- and macro-level interventions are necessary to eliminate and/or mitigate these negative experiences. This review focuses on micro-level interventions, specifically, five types of compensatory strategies that targets can use to eliminate and/or mitigate the bias and discrimination they experience

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Reexamining the Link Between Economic Downturns and Racial Antipathy: Evidence That Prejudice Against Blacks Rises During Recessions

Psychological Science

2018 Scholars have long argued that economic downturns intensify racial discord. However, empirical support for this relationship has been mixed, with most recent studies finding no evidence that downturns provoke greater racial animosity. Yet most past research has focused on hate crimes, a particularly violent and relatively infrequent manifestation of racial antipathy.

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Black and blue: Exploring racial bias and law enforcement in the killings of unarmed black male civilians

American Psychologist

2016 In late 2014, a series of highly publicized police killings of unarmed Black male civilians in the United States prompted large-scale social turmoil. In the current review, we dissect the psychological antecedents of these killings and explain how the nature of police work may attract officers with distinct characteristics that may make them especially well-primed for negative interactions with Black male civilians.

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Medium and Message: Globalization and innovation in the production field of Indian fashion

Organization Studies

2016 How do unconventional innovations become accepted in creative industries? To uncover the process by which conventions changed in the field of Indian fashion, we analysed the content of all 586 articles on fashion published in India’s leading fashion magazine during a 20-year period.

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A rose by any other name?: The consequences of subtyping “African-Americans” from “Blacks”

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

2015 Racial labels often define how social groups are perceived. The current research utilized both archival and experimental methods to explore the consequences of the “Black” vs.“African-American” racial labels on Whites' evaluations of racial minorities. We argue ...

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Gender Profiling A Gendered Race Perspective on Person–Position Fit

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin

2015 The current research integrates perspectives on gendered race and person–position fit to introduce the concept of a gender profile. We propose that both the “gender” of a person's biological sex and the “gender” of a person's race ...

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Gender Matching 2.0: Gendered Demographic Groups and Positions in Person-Position Fit

Northwestern University

2014 Gender researchers have explored how females and males are funneled into sex-typed positions due to perceived differences in femininity and masculinity. Traditionally, researchers only focused on the femininity and masculinity that emanates from one's biological sex, however, contemporary research suggests that different races, nationalities, and sexual orientations are also perceived to be feminine or masculine...

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Gendered races implications for interracial marriage, leadership selection, and athletic participation

Psychological Science

2013 Six studies explored the overlap between racial and gender stereotypes, and the consequences of this overlap for interracial dating, leadership selection, and athletic participation. Two initial studies captured the explicit and implicit gender content of racial ...

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The hubris penalty: Biased responses to “Celebration” displays of black football players

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

2012 We posit that pride and arrogance are tolerated for high-status group members but are repudiated for low-status group members. Thus, we predict that Blacks, but not Whites, who behave arrogantly will be penalized. Specifically, we investigated the context of penalties ...

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Gendered Races: Implications for Interracial Marriage, Leadership Selection, and Athletic Participation

Sage Publications

2013 Six studies explored the overlap between racial and gender stereotypes, and the consequences of this overlap for interracial dating, leadership selection, and athletic participation. Two initial studies captured the explicit and implicit gender content of racial stereotypes: Compared with the White stereotype, the Asian stereotype was more feminine, whereas the Black stereotype was more masculine.

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Research Spotlight

In the News (13)

Bringing DEI into the core of our institutions

INSEAD Knowledge  online


For faculty who need to overcome self-consciousness or negative self-image, Erika Hall, assistant professor of organisation and management at Emory University, demonstrated a classroom exercise illustrating how false meta stereotypes – beliefs about how others regard us – influence how we show up in the world.

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NFL referees penalize Black players for celebrating far more than white players

ESPN Andscape  online


That study of two years’ worth of flags from 2010-2011 found that 92% of unsportsmanlike conduct penalties after touchdowns were levied against Black players, according to Erika V. Hall, a doctoral student at the time who co-authored the paper with a colleague from Northwestern University. At the time, Black players accounted for 65% of NFL rosters compared to 31% for white players.

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Meet the Fourth Class of our 40 under 40 Honorees

Atlanta Business Chronicle  online


Erika Hall, associate professor of organization and management, Emory's Goizueta School of Business

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This Is How Everyday Sexism Could Stop You From Getting That Promotion

The New York Times  online


Backlash, too, plays out differently for women of different racial groups, points out Erika Hall, an Emory University management professor. A survey of hundreds of women scientists she helped conduct found that Asian American women reported the highest amount of backlash for self-promotion and assertive behavior.

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What’s in a Name? Black vs. African American

Black News Channel  online


Featuring Erika Hall

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How to Talk with Your Team About the Violence at the U.S. Capitol

Harvard Business Review  


Many leaders don’t know how to discuss current events that elicit strong opinions and emotions and so their default is to say nothing or make only a passing comment. They must instead lean into moments of disbelief, frustration, anger, fear, and anything else people...

Harvard Business Review Erika Hall

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Stop Giving Digital Assistants Female Voices

The New Republic  online


According to Erika Hall, a professor at Emory University’s Goizueta Business School, unconscious bias has its origins in the “cultural knowledge” we absorb from the world around us.

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Armour: The real reason behind criticism of Cam Newton

USAToday  online


Livingston and Erika V. Hall found that, despite black players making up 65% of the NFL in 2010-11, they received 91% of the unsportsmanlike conduct penalties called after touchdowns that year...

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The world only has ugliness for black women. That’s why Serena Williams is so important

Salon  online


But the problem is longer and wider than the dimensions of the tennis court. In a series of papers, Emory University business professor Erika V. Hall and her colleagues have found that in everything from business, to dating, to sports, research participants routinely associate gender stereotypes with racial groups.

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At the intersection of race, gender and STEM

Daily KOS  online


New research, co-authored by Joan C. Williams of the University of California's Hastings College of Law, Kathrine W. Phillips of the Columbia Business School, and Erika V. Hall of Emory University's Goizueta Business School, has taken a look at gender bias, with particular emphasis on gender bias against women of color in science. Studying the existing literature and conducting interviews and a survey, they reported on the four most common patterns of sexual bias...

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“It’s the Blackness that scares everybody”: Why white people favor “African-Americans”

Salon  online


A new study from professor Erika Hall of Emory University’s Goizueta Business School suggests that white people have a far more negative view of the term “Black” than they do of the term “African-American.” For instance, study participants routinely concluded that a person had a higher level of education and job status, if that person was referred to as African-American rather than Black.

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According to a New Study, Blacks Are Losing Out to—Wait for It—African Americans

The Root  online


Erika V. Hall, a professor at the Goizueta Business School at Emory University, conducted a study published in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology during which a group of white participants from across the country were asked a series of questions about scenarios relating to people identified as “black” or “African American.” The results were pretty startling...

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Whites view the term “African-American” more favorably than “black”

The Washington Post  online


Despite the fact that the word “Negro” has been widely considered offensive for decades, the term remained in our country’s official vocabulary for a surprisingly long time. Only last year did the Census stop listing it as an option, and only earlier this month did the Army officially end the practice that allowed service personnel to be addressed as “Negro.”

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Answers (1)

Racial Bias - What's in a Name 

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Is the label “Black” different from the label “African American?” New research shows that white Americans associate the label “Black” with being targets of racial bias more than the label “African Americans.” The findings have implications for outcomes as varied as the tone of media coverage, non-profit fundraising, and even image search results. The results are detailed in a new paper published by Psychological Science titled, “What’s in a Name? The Hidden Historical Ideologies Embedded in the Black and African American Racial Labels.”In one particularly stark finding, if white Americans personally endorse bias and discrimination ideologies, they are 99% more likely to donate to an organization labeled as a “Black” organization, rather than an “African American” one. The paper is co-authored by Professors Erika V. Hall of Emory University’s Goizueta Business School, Sarah S. M. Townsend of the USC Marshall School of Business, and doctoral student James T. Carter of Columbia Business School. Professor Erika V. Hall is available for interviews this week.